## Invalidation of the Inverse Square Law for Spherical Light Emitting Objects

Karunakar Marasakatla
(Updated: August 22nd, 2011)
(www.kmarasakatla.com)

Abstract

In addition to the brightness of a light emitting (active) object and the distance between the active and passive objects; the amount of light reaches a passive object also depends upon the amount of the surface area of the active object exposed towards the passive object. Inverse square law of distance for light is not valid in instances where the light emitting objects are in different shapes such as sphere (star) or cylinder (florescent  tube); in which case the surface area of these objects exposed to an external object varies with the size of the objects.

## Introduction

Assume the source of light as the spots of a contrast color on the surface of an inflated balloon. When the balloon is deflated to half of its original size, not only the brightness of the spots will increase but also more number of spots will be visible if we view the balloon from the same distance to the center of the balloon. If our star, the sun, collapses to half of its present size, an increased amount of surface area of the sun will be exposed towards the earth, resulting in the increase in the total amount of light reaches the earth. This is a clear violation of the inverse square law (ISL) for light.

Before delving into the details of the ISL, lets first look at some of the basic laws about the light and its propagation. We can summarize two of the basic properties of light and its propagation in the following points.

A glowing object is a collection of point size light emitting objects (LEOs). The surface of the sun can be assumed as having a collection of N million light bulbs spread uniformly all over its surface. The number of light bulbs in a fixed percentage of the surface area of the LEO, irrespective of its radius, will always remain the same. One quarter or 25% of the surface area will have N/4 number of light bulbs.

The light emanating from the opposite side of the sun will never reach the earth. If the other hemisphere of the sun also faces towards the earth then the amount of light reaches the earth from the sun will double. It means the amount of light reaches a passive object depends upon the percentage of the surface area of the light emitting object exposed towards the passive object. Number of point size LEOs facing the passive object will increase withthe increase in the surface area of the LEO exposed towards the passive object.

In the derivation of inverse square law of distance for light, it was always assumed that a constant percentage of the surface area of the LEO will be facing towards the passive object irrespective of the size of the objects and the distance between them. A close analysis of the surface areas exposed between two spherical objects reveals that the percentage of the surface area of a spherical LEO exposed towards another spherical object increases with the decrease in the radius of the light emitting object.

## Exposed Surface Area of a Spherical LEO towards another Spherical Object

Suppose two spherical objects A and B, A being the active object and the B as a passive object, facing each other as shown in Fig 1. In this case, it is important to note that the light emits from the surface of the sphere instead of from the center of the object.

Fig 1. Exposure of surface area between two spheres.

The equation for the surface area of the sphere A exposed towards the sphere B between the lines connecting the edges of the two spheres is given below where the R and r are the radii of objects A and B respectively and the d is the distance between the center of these two objects.

Equation for the s in terms of the percentage of the area of the sphere is as follows.

As shown in Eq 2, the percentage of the spherical surface area exposed towards the passive object is dependent on the distance between the two spherical objects and the radii of the active and passive objects. If we change the radius of object A from 10 units to zero by keeping the values for r and d as 10 and 20 units respectively, the value for p will increase as the object A approaches towards a point size.

As the LEO decreases in size, the intensity of light emitting from its surface will increase and at the same time percentage of the surface area of the active object exposed towards the passive object will also increase; ultimately increasing the amount of light reaching the passive object as the active object decreases in size. When the two objects were close to each other, because the two spheres were equal in size, one full hemisphere or 50% of the surface area of each sphere gets exposed to the other. As the active object decreases in size, more percentage of the surface area of the active object gets exposed towards the passive object. When the active object turns to as close as a point size sphere, 75% of its surface area gets exposed towards the passive object. Increased exposure of the active object sheds additional amount of light on the passive objet. According to the Inverse square law, even if the LEO collapses to a point size, the amount of light reaches the passive object remains the same as when the two objects were close to each other. The ISL is based on the assumption that a same amount of the percentage of the surface area of the LEO gets exposed to the passive object irrespective of the size of the active object. In reality, more percentage of the area of the active object gets exposed to the passive object, resulting in an increase in the amount of light reaches the passive object when the size of the active object was decreased.

## Amount of Light from a True Point Size Light Source

A spherical light source emanates the light in all directions but we can only see the part of the light that is emanating in our direction from that object. At any point of time, an area of maximum one hemisphere of the light emitting object, like our sun, will be visible from an external point. The other half of of the sphere will be away from the passive point therefore the light from that part of the object will never reach the external point because the object itself will obstruct the light emanating from the other half of the object towards the external point. As long as the object remains as an opaque and spherical in shape, even if it collapses to a point size, the external point receives only half the amount of light emanating from the object. If the sun has a transparent interior, we will receive the light emanating from the other half of its surface as well. It means, the earlier obstructed part of the light gets exposed when it becomes a transparent object.

When all the light emitting points on the surface of the LEO merge into a single point then there will not be anything obstructing between any of the light emanating from the LEO and the external point.Therefore, all the light emanating from all the points on the surface of the object will reach the external point. It is equal to merging all the light emitting points on the surface of the sun into a single point, a true point size LEO; similar to merging all the light bulbs on the surface of the sun into a single bulb. The intensity of the new point towards any direction will be equal to the combined intensity of all the points on the surface.

If the sun ever becomes a true point size object, it will shine very brighter than it is visible at this time. It will be like peeling the entire surface of the sun and spreading it wide open in the sky facing towards the earth. The other side of the spread out sun will also shine with equal intensity. Even though each point on the present sun spreads the light in all directions, the light spreading towards the center will never be visible. By spreading its surface or converting it to a true point size, the light spreading inwards also gets exposed.

There will not be any surface area for a true point size LEO. Lines extended for all the light emanating from a true point will be going through the center of the point. The amount of light reaches an external object from a true point LEO depends upon the angle of projection the external object makes on to the point. An area of exposure of a true point light source on to a flat surface wii increase four times if we double the distance between the objects.

Consider two flat concentric circles with the radii of 5 and 10 units for inner and outer circles respectively. In this case, the area of the outer circle will be four times bigger than the inner circle. If we focus a torch light, with a fixed angle of projection, completely on to the surface of the inner circle from a distance of 10 units and then refocus the same torch on the surface at double the initial distance (20 units) , then the light from the torch will completely occupy the outer circle. In this case, the amount of light received by the inner circle will become one fourth of the initial value, but the amount of light reaches the outer circle will remain the same in both the instances because none of the light from the torch is falling outside the outer circle. Light not necessarily be uniformly distributed all over the surface of the object in calculating the total amount of light on its surface. If we further move away the torch from the surface and increase the distance by four times of the initial value (40 units) then the amount of light reaches the outer circle will become one fourth of the light from the torch. Therefore, we can say that the ISL applies in calculating the amount of light exposed by a true point size LEO onto a flat surface only when that surface is completely exposed to the light source and then the light source was moved away from the surface.

The case of the amount of light reaches a sphere from an external true point light source is similar to the above concentric circles. A sphere can be assumed as a stack of flat and thin circular disks facing an external point. Light from an external point falls on the edges of different disks depending upon the distance between the point and the sphere. The area of exposure on the surface of the sphere forms as a spherical cap . The area covered by the cap can be expressed using the Eq. 3 where the s is the area of the cap, R is the radius of the sphere and the d is the distance between the external point and the center of the sphere.

Amount of the surface area of a sphere exposed towards a true point light source varies with the distance, thereby changing the amount of light reaches each of the completely exposed disk in the sphere until the exposed surface area is equal to one complete hemisphere of the passive object. From that point onwards, the amount of light reaches the sphere will be inversely proportional to the distance between the objects.

If we assume the radius of the sphere as 10 units then the graph for the surface area of the cap of the sphere is shown as in Fig 2. As shown in the graph, the difference in the area of the successive caps will be more when the point is closure to the sphere. As the point moves away from the sphere, the area of the cap will be close to the area of one complete hemisphere. As we can see in the graph, the area of the spherical cap exposed by the external point will never be equal to the area of one complete hemisphere but it will be close to its value at far away from the point. The difference between the amount of light calculated using the ISL and the actual amount received by the sphere will be less when the difference between the area of one hemisphere and the area of the exposed spherical cap decreases.

Fig 2. Exposure of surface between a point and a sphere

## Limitations of Inverse Square Law for Light

There are three possible scenarios for any light emitting object; a huge spherical object like our sun, a point size spherical object formed from the collapse of the same object and a true point size object. From the above analysis, it is now evident that a passive object receives more light from an active object when the object is a spherical point size LEO than it is a huge object. The same passive object will receive even greater amount of light when the LEO collapses to a true point size object. It is important to note that all of these three objects emanates the same amount of light. Variation in the amount of light received by an external passive object kept at a same distance from different forms of the same LEO violates the ISL for light. The root cause for the ISL to be false is the assumption of all the light emitting objects as a true point size objects in its derivation. A spherical and a true point size light emitting objects are not the same in the manner in which they spread the light around them. A true point size LEO spreads more light compared to any other spherical object even though the total amount of light generated by these objects are the same.

Therefore, we can’t assume a spherical object as a true point size object without doubling the intensity of the object, at the same time, we can’t equate a true point size object to a spherical object without halving the intensity of the object in determining the amount of light that object spreads around its surroundings. ISL is not applicable for the spherical objects, either passive or active, where the amount of the surface area exposed to another object varies with the distance between them thereby altering the amount of light received by the passive object. ISL only applies to a scenario where the initial

exposure of a true point size LEO is on the whole surface of the passive object. There shouldn’t be any change in the amount of the surface area of the passive object exposed towards the active object when the distance between them was either increased or decreased.

## Amount of Light to An External Point

Amount of light (l ) an external point receives from a LEO depends upon the total amount of light (L) of the LEO, total surface area of the LEO (S), the distance between the center of the LEO to the external point (d) and the surface area of the LEO (s) exposed towards the external point.

Amount of light received b the external point will increase as the amount of the surface area of the LEO exposed towards the external point increases.

If the LEO is a true point size object then the surface area of the LEO exposed towards the external point will be equal to the total surface area of the LEO, therefore the amount of light received by the external point will be

## Conclusion

In summary, we can conclude that inverse square law of distance for light works only when    the active light emitting object is of a true point size object and the passive object is a flat two dimensional surface. In all other scenarios, the amount of light reaches a passive object depends upon the size and shape of both the active and passive objects along with the distance between them.

Categories: Physics

## An Unifying Basis for all the Nuclear Reactions

Karunakar Marasakatla

(Updated: May 23rd, 2011)

(www.kmarasakatla.com)

Abstract

A successful explanation of the actual underlying physical process for an observed phenomenon will lead to the prediction of other possible scenarios for that process. A new understanding of how the nuclear reactions such as the fission and fusion works leads to the explanation of other observed anomalies. All the nuclear reactions, including the low energy nuclear reactions, appear to be the manifestation of the collapse and or expansion of a group of particles.

Keywords: transitive property of equality, neutron star, singularity, black hole, binding energy, strong nuclear force, gravitational self energy, mass energy equality, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, plasma, cold fusion and low energy nuclear reactions.

## Introduction

For a long period of time, it has been thought that the solution for the energy needs of the future is in achieving the nuclear fusion, similar to the fusion process taking place in the Sun, by simply using the hydrogen gas. We get very limited amount of energy in the combustion of the hydrogen gas, whereas if we use the same amount of hydrogen in a fusion reaction, we are supposed to get abundant amount of energy. If we could able to control the fusion reaction, it was claimed that it is possible to generate enough energy to power the energy needs of the world for billions of years into the future with the amount of available hydrogen on the planet. Until now, all the attempts at achieving the fusion were consuming more energy than the amount of energy being released. Why we weren’t succeeded for all these years in devising a process for the fusion of hydrogen to power the world? Is such a process really a possibility or simply a figment of the imagination?

Another oddity in nuclear reactions is our inability to explain the cause for the energy released in apparent low energy nuclear reactions. Inability to explain doesn’t invalidate a practical observation. Instead of ridiculing the observations, we need to look into our existing theories for any possible inconsistencies or misconceptions.

It does appear that we have abundant amount of inconsistencies in our understanding of this physical world. The very basic premises in our understanding of nuclear reactions such as definition of mass, mass deficit and the binding energy appear to be flawed.

## Validity of Definition of Mass

According to the Transitive Property of Equality in Mathematics, if a = b and b = c then it will be  a = c. Even though the Mathematics is the basis for the field of Physics, this property doesn’t appear to be true in Physics.

Let’s assume that the stars A and C with a mass of ma and mc collapsed to form two neutron stars B and D with a mass of mb and md respectively. According to the definition of mass, an object’s mass will remain same irrespective of its size. It means that the initial stars and their neutron counterparts will measure the same amount of mass. Therefore ma = mb and mc = md. According to the same definition of mass, two identical objects will measure the same amount of mass. If both the two neutron stars contain the same number of neutrons then they both will measure the same amount of mass. In this case, mb will be equal to md

Here, we have ma = mb and md = mc. Because mb = md, we can say that ma = mb and mb = mc, therefore, according to the Transitive Property, ma should be equal to mc. It means that the mass of two stars will be the same if the number of neutrons in those two stars is same. In reality, this conclusion is not true. Two different stars will measure different amount of mass depending upon the elemental composition of the stars, not on the number of neutrons they contain.

Definition of mass, the very fundamental concept in Physics violates the basic laws of Mathematics. Flawed definition of mass is the sole culprit for the present chaos in physical theories. Mass or gravity of an object does change with the size of the object [1]. Either if it is star or a nucleus of an atom, the compact form of the object measures more mass than the expanded form of the object with same amount of material. A neutron star measures more mass than any other object from which it was collapsed.

## Binding Energy and the Size of a Nucleus

The relationship between the mass, binding energy, deficit of mass and the size of a nucleus was grossly misunderstood. The mass of all the baryons in a nucleus will be greater than the mass of the nucleus of any element. The difference between these two was  termed as the mass deficit and it was equated to the binding energy within the nucleus using the mass-energy equivalence principle of E = mc2. According to the present theories, a nucleus will be compact when there is more and more binding energy within that nucleus. It means, a nucleus which exhibits increased amount of deficit in mass will have more binding energy and forms as a compact nucleus. The relationship between the deficit of mass and the size of a nucleus is a derived notion, not a direct observation. It will lead to all false conclusions if we use the deficit of mass or the binding energy within a nucleus as basis to determine the volume of that nucleus and how far away the nucleons are from one another.

If all the mass becomes deficit within a nucleus then that nucleus will have tremendous amount of binding energy; transforming it as the most compact form of material, possibly as a singularity or black hole. It means, the black hole is the lightest form of a material, the mass of any black hole being almost equal to zero kilograms because all of its mass was deficit. The idea of black hole being massless is unthinkable in the current theories of Physics. Black holes or the singularity does have a non zero amount of mass because many objects were bound to these black holes gravitationally such as the stars around the super massive black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy.

Even the other way around for the deficit of mass doesn’t appear to be true. If the object has less deficit in mass, it will have less binding energy and occupies more in space. It means an expanded form of an object measures more in mass to its compact and denser counterpart. The concept of binding energy advocates that the size of the object or the amount of space the matter occupies will be proportional to the amount of mass it measures. In other words, the volume of the object is inversely proportional to the amount of deficit in mass that object exhibits. If that statement is true then a gaseous form of CO2 should measure more in mass compared to the dry ice formed from the same amount of CO2 molecules. Even this conclusion is in stark contrast to the definition of mass according to which the mass of an object should not vary depending upon the size of the object.

There is no consistency between the physical aspects such as mass, deficit of mass, binding energy and the volume of an object. All of our assumptions and theories based on the current definition of mass appear to be flawed. The most appropriate description of the observations coherently is that the mass or gravity of an object increases as all the matter within the object collapses to a compact form. The gravity of the same object will decrease as the distance between the particles increases [1,2].

Strength of an object doesn’t depend upon the density of the material with which the object was made of; rather it depends upon the structure of the material within the object. Shape and structure of same amount of carbon atoms in graphene or diamond determines the strength of the object. Same amount of bricks will result in different amount of strength for a structure depending upon whether those bricks were arranged in an arch or a flat form.  Aerogel made from carbon is stronger than any other collapsed form of object made from the same amount of carbon atoms. Just like the diamond, Aerogel’s strength comes from the structure of the material. Water is in compact form compared to the ice formed from the same amount of H2O molecules but the ice is stronger than its compact counterpart. Usually, the strength of an object originates from the state of equilibrium within the object in a lattice or crystalline structure. An object with strong binding energy be not necessarily a compact object.

Principles of Physics should be universal and be the same for macro and micro worlds. Increase in the binding energy is not an indication to the compactness of the nucleus. There is no direct relationship between the size and binding energy of a nucleus. Binding energy depends upon the structure in which all of the baryons form within a nucleus. It is a well known fact that the iron has more binding energy than any other nucleus but that doesn’t mean it has one of the compact nuclei. The most plausible explanation for the iron to have more binding energy is the structure of its nucleus. The cause of increased deficit in iron is due to the increased volume in which all of its baryons were occupying [1]. Nucleus of iron has more deficit in mass, more binding energy and will have increased distance between the baryons.

## Energy within the Nuclear Reactions

The flawed definition of mass and the misunderstanding of the binding energy lead to many false conclusions in Nuclear Physics including the main factor by which the energy is released in these reactions. Gravity between two stars will increase when both the stars collapse to form neutron stars. Gravity will further increase when these two neutron stars collapse to form black holes. Inverse square law of gravity doesn’t incorporate the size of an object into the picture. When definition of mass itself is flawed then the inverse square law for gravity is also becomes invalid.

A compact object, either it is a nucleus or a black hole, measures more in mass and gravity, and contains more energy. Gravity between two objects is stronger when they are of compact form such as two point size particles. In the absence of additional strong force between the particles, it was theorized that the gravity itself is the strong nuclear force [1, 2]; only the theories describing them are different until now. A compact object contains more energy in the form of gravitational self energy and measures more in mass and gravity. A compact form of an object means that all the particles within that object are close to each other. As the object expands, by increasing the distance between the individual particles, the gravitational self energy of the object decreases and at the same time it also measures less in mass and gravity. The difference in the gravitational self energy between the two forms of the object will be released as the energy in the expansion of the object. In any form of reaction, the amount of energy being released will depend upon the amount of increase in the average of average distance between one particle to the rest of the particles within the initial and final form of the object for all the particles combined.

## Nuclear Fission

Nuclear fission is a process of splitting a nucleus of a heavy element into nuclei of two lighter elements. The amount of energy released in the process was equated to the amount of mass that was deficit in the process [3].

Uranium and all other heavy elements are known to have less binding energy per nucleon than the nucleus of the iron atom. Natural decay or the fission of heavy elements releases the energy until they form as the nuclei of an element with more binding energy such as iron. The notion of a nucleus of a heavy element with a less binding energy giving rise to a nuclei with more binding energy and still releases the energy, equal to the amount of mass that was deficit in the process, defies the logic. The sum of the binding energy of the products and the energy released will be more than the binding energy of the heavy element.

In accordance with the above findings, we can describe the nuclear fission as the expansion of a compact nucleus. Nucleus of heavy elements like the uranium will have less deficit of mass, less average distance between the baryons and more gravitational self energy. Disintegration or expansion of this nucleus by fission or by radioactive decay releases the energy and results in the deficit of the combined mass of resultant products.

## Nuclear Fusion

It is widely believed that the source of Sun’s energy is the fusion of plasma, the hydrogen nuclei, into lighter elements. The amount of mass that was deficit in the reaction was equated to the amount of energy released. Plasma is a densely packed group of protons, completely different from the gaseous state of hydrogen found at the room temperature. Due to the compact nature of the plasma, it will have more self energy than the hydrogen gas for the same amount of protons. As the plasma expands when it forms as the nuclei of other elements, it releases the energy. Normal hydrogen atoms are already in an expanded form as a gas at the room temperature. They can’t release any more energy when they are subjected to any kind of nuclear reactions. To make the hydrogen atoms to release energy, first we need to compress the atoms to the state of plasma and then that plasma should be subjected to an expansion. Energy will be consumed in the compression of the gaseous hydrogen before it ever releases the energy. Even within our star, tremendous amount of energy was consumed initially in converting the hydrogen into a compact form of plasma. Energy is now being released from the plasma when it expands in forming the helium nuclei.

Just like the neutron star is a compact form of neutrons, the plasma is a compact form of protons. How much of binding energy these objects exhibit? According to the standard theories, the binding energy of these two objects is simply a zero because we don’t propose any loss of mass in these objects yet they are very tightly bound compact objects.

The fusion as we know it today is a two phase process; a collapse of the initial material to a compact form and the rearrangement of the compact material into different nuclei in an expansion. The initial phase consumes the energy and the later phase releases the energy. The net result depends upon the amount of initial collapse and the later expansion.

It is absolutely not possible to release the energy without first consuming the same in a fusion process. All the lighter elements such as hydrogen are found in the nature in a gaseous state. Unless this material was compressed to a compact form, there is no possibility of extracting the energy from these lighter elements.

The energy released in the fusion of deuterium with tritium creating helium is from the collapsed material of deuterium and tritium; it has nothing to do with the deficit of mass in the in the initial material. It is also possible to extract different amount of energy using the same amount of material in a fusion process. The amount of energy released depends upon the amount of collapse in the initial material. The mass energy equivalence principle, E = mc2, takes the initial and final products into the picture and ignores the intermediate collapsed form of the material. The actual amount of energy released in a fusion depends upon the volume of the intermediate collapsed material and that could vary depending upon how much energy is used to compress the material. Energy inequality in fusion reactions and the flawed definition of mass are indications to the invalidity of the principle of mass energy equality in nuclear reactions.

## Are There any Other Possibilities in Nuclear Reactions?

As it was mentioned earlier, the fusion is a two phase process; without the initial collapse of a material, it is not possible to release more energy in the process. Even though the earlier [4] and the more recent [5] observations of palladium-deuterium reactions revealed the possibility of excess energy in the nuclear reactions, these reactions wouldn’t fit the description of either the fission or fusion processes. It was unfortunate that the process was termed as the cold fusion, hoping it to be a variant of nuclear fusion process. If not fission or fusion, what are these nuclear reactions if at all they are of type nuclear?

In any nuclear reaction, the net amount of energy depends upon whether there is a collapse or expansion in the material. If there is a net increase in the average distance between the particles of initial nucleus to the final nucleus by acquiring a proton or neutron, then that process will release the energy. If a tightly packed nucleus expands by acquiring a proton or neutron, then that process will release energy. There is no need for the collapse and expansion of the material like in the process of fusion. The only thing required for a reaction to release the energy is the net expansion of the material. The initial and the final nuclei could be the isotopes of same element or the nuclei of completely different elements. This process is more akin to the fission process than to the fusion; where the nucleus expands but not to the extent of becoming the two different nuclei.

These experimental observations were never gained any credibility even after changing the name to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It is because the standard theories explaining the nuclear reactions were based on the false fundamentals. That made it difficult to comprehend these observations based on the prevailing theories.

## Conclusion

Even though we generate enormous amounts nuclear energy for the benefit of the world, we haven’t understood the underlying physical processes which are the basis for these nuclear reactions. Expanded and collapsed forms of an object are not the same. Compact form of the object contains more energy than the expanded form of the same object with same amount of material. A compact form of an object can only release the energy when it was subjected to an expansion. It is also possible to extract small amounts of energy from non-fusion and non-fission nuclear reactions where there is a net increase in the average distance between the particles of initial and final nuclei. The notion of extracting enormous amounts of energy by simply using the hydrogen gas in a fusion reaction to power the world is baseless. The cause for all of the unrealistic assumptions is the flawed, baseless, mathematically invalid fundamental concepts such as the mass and the binding energy.

## References

1. K Marasakatla, What Causes the Mass to be Deficit inside a Nucleus?, Prespacetime Journal, Vol 1 No. 9, 1418-1424 (2010). [ Available online at http://www.prespacetime.com/index.php/pst/article/view/123Also available as a knol.]
2. K Marasakatla, Gravity from a New Angle (2009).
3. L. Meitner and O.R. Frisch, Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: a New Type of Nuclear Reaction, Nature, Vol. 143, No. 3615 (February 11, 1939).
4. M Fleischmann, et al., Calorimetry of the palladium-deuterium-heavy water system, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 287: 293–348 (1990)
5. P Mosier-Boss et al., Triple tracks in CR-39 as the result of Pd–D Co-deposition: evidence of energetic neutrons, NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN, Vol. 96, No. 1, 135-142 (2009)

Categories: Physics

## What Causes The Mass To Be Deficit Inside A Nucleus?

Karunakar Marasakatla

(Updated: October 18th, 2010)

Abstract: There is ample amount of ambiguity regarding the concept of mass in present principles of physics. The mass of a gas nebula will be measured as the combined mass of all the atoms within that nebula. The only option for the measurement of mass of the same nebula when it collapses to a neutron star is by combining the mass of all the neutron particles. These two values of mass for the same object will never be the same. This is, in fact, against the definition of mass which states that the mass of an object is a fixed amount irrespective of the size of the object. It appears that our understanding of mass and the way we measure it is flawed.

All the observations demonstrate that there will be deficit or gain in the mass of an object when there is a change in the volume of that object.  An object measures more mass when the volume of the object was decreased. A neutron star is a compact form of the gas nebula from which it was collapsed, therefore the neutron star measures more mass or gravity than the gas nebula. A nucleus measures more gravity when all the particles were packed together in a small volume. The cause for the deficit of mass inside a nucleus is the increase in volume in which the particles were occupied.

Keywords: Deficit of mass, gravity, strong nuclear force, fission, binding energy, inverse square law, Avogadro constant, galactic orbital velocity, Pioneer anomaly, unification of fundamental forces.

The mass of a nucleus is always less than the combined mass of all the particles within the nucleus. The difference in these two values is called as the mass deficit in the nucleus. A simple answer for the cause of deficit is the binding energy inside the nucleus. Apart from this well known explanation, is there any other physical aspect of the nucleus we can attribute as the cause for the deficit?

The mass of two objects is the cause for the gravity between them. Therefore, the notion of mass deficit can also be described as the deficit in gravity between the object and earth. Because of the association between the mass and gravity, let’s ignore the relevance of binding energy for a while and explore the deficit of mass in respect to the gravity.

According to the standard theory, the mass of an object is the object’s resistance to change in motion. It is a fixed amount for a given object irrespective of the volume of the object.  It means, even if the volume of the object decreases, the amount of mass it measures remains the same. This relation should hold true as long as the amount of matter inside the object remains the same. Does an object measure the same amount of mass even if the object collapses to a neutron star?

### Mass of a Neutron Star with n Number of Neutrons

Let us assume that the number of neutrons inside a neutron star is n. What would be the mass of this neutron star? The only option to measure the mass of a neutron star is by multiplying the mass of a single neutron with the total number of neutrons in the star. In this case, the mass of the neutron star is proportional to the amount of matter, the number of neutrons, inside the star. Is this mass going to be consistent with the mass of the material from which the star was formed?

Let’s consider the following two scenarios. A neon cloud with X moles of atoms collapsed to form a neutron star and another cloud of calcium dust with X/2 moles of atoms collapsed to form another neutron star. Let’s also assume that none of the material from these clouds got ejected when the clouds collapsed to form the neutron stars.

A neon atom contains ten of each basic particles; protons, neutrons and electrons. An atom of calcium contains double the amount of particles, 20 of each individual particle. A mole of neon measures 20.1791 grams of mass and a half mole of calcium measures (40.078/2) = 20.039 grams. Each of these two entities has same number of electrons, protons and neutrons but differ in the amount of mass they measure. The neon cloud will measure X*20.1791 grams and the calcium cloud will measure X * 20.039 grams.

When a cloud collapses to form a neutron star, all the protons and electrons merge to form the neutrons. A neutron star is a compact form of all the collapsed neutrons. When X moles of neon and X/2 moles of calcium collapsed, they both generate same number of neutrons. Therefore, the neutron stars formed from these two clouds should measure the same amount of mass. But the actual mass of the original clouds from which they were formed differ from each other.

If we calculate the mass of a neutron star as the combined mass of all the neutrons in the star, then the star will have more mass than the mass of the cloud from which it was formed because the cloud is a set of atoms and each atom will exhibit a deficit in mass when compared to the mass of all the particles inside the atom.

Another way of measuring the mass of a neutron star is by considering it as a huge nucleus. It is known that each nucleus of an atom exhibits an amount of deficit in mass due to the binding energy within the nucleus. Because the neutrons are densely packed together within the star, the nucleus will have a tremendous amount of binding energy. The amount of binding energy should exceed that of any known nucleus of an atom. If the amount of binding energy is an indication to the amount of mass that was deficit in a nucleus, then the neutron star will have tremendous amount of deficit in mass. Therefore, the star will measure less mass than the neon or calcium clouds. By whatever means we measure the mass of the neutron star, it is certain that the mass of the star will be different than the object from which it was formed.

Here, we can conclude two things. First one is that the two different clouds of material measuring different amount of mass but same amount of basic particles will result in neutron stars with each having same amount of mass when those clouds were collapsed. Secondly, the mass of the collapsed neutron star will either be more or less than that of the cloud from which it formed.

These two statements are in stark contrast to the conclusions of the Shell Theorem and the definition of mass, which states that the size of the object is irrelevant in the amount of mass or gravity the object measures. But in reality, it appears that the mass of an object does change with the volume of the object as seen in the formation of the neutron star. Why is there a disparity between the mass of two forms of same object with the same amount of material?

When an object collapses to a neutron star, it is no longer relevant from which atom the particles were came from. Many different combinations of different atoms yield the same type of object when they collapse to a neutron star if the total number of basic particles inside the objects yields the same number of neutrons. Then the mass of all those collapsed objects will be same even though the original objects have different amount of mass.

Therefore the mass or gravity of an object does change with the volume of the object. A neutron star and the object from which it was collapsed vary in the amount of mass they measure.

### Nuclear Fission and Release of Binding Energy

When an uranium atom was bombarded with a neutron, the atom splits into two smaller nuclei and releases energy. The energy released was termed as the binding energy within the nucleus of uranium atom. The amount of binding energy released was equated to the amount of mass that was deficit in the fission products and the process was termed as nuclear fission [1].

In the nuclear fission, it is important to note that the stored energy is associated with the uranium atom and the deficit in mass is observed in the fission products. The mass deficit and the energy were not part of the same object. When an uranium atom releases the energy, in other words, when it disintegrates or expands in size, then only we observe the deficit in mass. The expansion of the matter inside an object releases the energy and at the same time causes the mass to be deficit in the final products [2].

When particles within a nucleus occupies less space, then the nucleus will have more gravitational self energy and at the same time it will measure more in gravity. A point mass object will have tremendous amount of energy and measures maximum amount of gravity. As the particles separate and occupy more space in a nucleus, the nucleus will have less amount of energy and also measure less in gravity compared to a point size object. The amount of energy an object contains and the amount of gravity that object measures depends upon how densely the particles within that object are packed together. If the particles are spread apart in more volume, then there will be further deficit in the amount of mass that object measures.

Because the neutron star is a compact material, it contains more gravitational self energy and at the same time measures more gravity than the gas cloud from which it was collapsed. Therefore, we can deduce that the gravity of the sun will increase manifold when it collapses to a neutron star or a point mass object.

It is possible to create an uranium atom from the fission products by fusing them together. The uranium atom decreases in size, contains more energy and measures more in mass compared to the fused atoms. There is no loss or gain of matter in this process. It means that the actual object remained the same; we just simply reduced the amount of volume that object occupies.

Either it is an atom or an object, the amount of mass it measures depends upon the volume in which the particles were spread apart in the object.

### Relationship Between the Number of Baryons and the Deficit of Mass

Let’s assume four different atoms with different number of protons and neutrons but the total number of baryons (protons and neutrons) as 40. The combination of particles and the mass of the four atoms are given in Table 1. The combined mass of one proton (p) and one electron (e) is almost equal to the mass of a neutron (n).  So, we can treat the combination of one proton and one electron equal to one neutron. The first atom in the following table is a normal calcium atom with 20 of each basic particle. Let’s assume the combined mass of all the individual particles is equal to X and the atomic mass of the atom is equal to Y. Due to the deficit of mass inside the nucleus, the atomic mass (Y) will always be less than the mass of all particles combined (X), means Y < X.

As shown in Table 1, the total mass of all particles inside an atom remains the same as long as the number of baryons is same. But the actual atomic mass of the atoms will always differ. There is no particular pattern in the change in value of the atomic mass. Any one of the atoms, like potassium, argon or chlorine could measure more than the calcium atom. In the same way, any one of those atoms could measure less atomic mass than the calcium atom. This implies that the amount of mass deficit doesn’t depend only on the number of basic particles inside the atom. There should be some other factor in the atom which influences the amount of mass the atom measures. As seen in the nuclear fission, a compact form of particles exerts more gravity than when the same particles were spread apart within the atom. It means, the way the particles are grouped together influences the amount of gravity they exert. Therefore, we can say that the atom in which the baryons are packed together in a smaller volume will have less deficit in mass compared to the atom in which the particles were occupied more space in the nucleus. The cause for the deficit of mass has a physical form; that is the structure of the nucleus and not just the notion of binding energy. If we ever peer into the nuclei of different atoms, it is difficult to say which of those atoms contains more binding energy as described in the present principles of physics. We could only see the number of basic particles and how far away they were placed from each other.

 Different atoms with Protons(pr), electrons(el) and neutrons(ne) Number of baryons Combined mass of particles (grams) (assume  n = p + e) Atomic mass (grams) Atom 1: 20pr,20el,20ne (normal calcium atom) 40 X Y Atom 2: 19pr,19el,21ne (Potassium isotope) 40 X + n – p – e = X Y ± a Atom 3: 18pr,18el,22ne (Argon isotope) 40 X + 2n – 2p – 2e = X Y ± b Atom 4: 17pr,17el,23ne (Chlorine isotope) 40 X + 3n – 3p – 3e = X Y ± c

Table 1: Atomic mass of different atoms with a fixed number of baryons

If the number of particles and the distance between them is known for a given atom then it should be possible to calculate the mass of the atom instead of measuring it.

When different atoms with the same number of baryons collapses to point size objects, all of those objects will be similar in all aspects and exert same amount of gravity to the earth. But each of the original atoms will measure different amounts of mass due to the structure of the atoms.

### Mass Deficit at the Object Level

The way we measure the mass today is external to the object. It doesn’t describe the amount of energy an object contains. The gravity of an object to the earth changes with the size, shape and the orientation of the object towards the earth along with the distance [2]. The gravitational self energy within the object depends upon how close the particles are grouped together within the object. There is no truth in the mass-energy equivalence principle.

Mass was defined as the resistance of an object and it was assumed as a fixed amount for a given object. Definition of mass and its measurement using the balance scale was in use even before the discovery of building blocks of the matter. Same amount of these building blocks (baryons) with different combinations has the ability to alter the amount of gravity they measure. On the basis of the Newtonian principle of gravity, Shell Theorem concludes that the gravity of an object doesn’t change with the size of the object. But the gravity at the particle level doesn’t appear to be following the Newtonian principle. Same amount of baryons in different atoms exert different amount of gravity. Objects are made of particles. If the Newtonian gravity is not in effect at the atomic level then the possibility of the same being in effect at the object level is none.

The inverse square law of gravity was derived with the assumption of gravity as a field emanating from a point source similar to the light spreading all around from a point. The foundation for the inverse square law is that the gravity doesn’t depend upon the size of the object. A huge object like our star, the sun, was compressed to a point size and shown that gravity is inversely proportional to the distance between the objects because the intensity of light decreases as inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects.  If the sun collapses to a neutron star then the amount of mass it measures will increase, ultimately affecting the gravity between the sun and earth. Even if there is a slight variation in the gravity between objects with the change in size then that will invalidate the inverse square law of gravity for objects. Newtonian gravity is in effect neither at the particle level nor at the object level. All the observations can easily be explained with the proposal of gravity at particle level as being inversely proportional to the distance between the particles [2].

In any object, the total mass of all particles will be equal to the measured mass of the object plus the mass deficit.

Total Mass of an object = Measured amount of Mass + Mass Deficit

At the present, we are simply aligning the mass of an object with gravity and measuring it using the balance scale. The deficit part of the mass within the object is completely ignored. When a set of particles occupy certain amount of volume, like particles in an atom, then there will be a deficit in the amount of mass that atom measures. Again, there will be further deficit of mass when a set of atoms form as a molecule, like the molecule of oxygen with two atoms, in addition to the deficit in each of the individual atoms. The amount of mass deficit depends on the distance between the atoms within the molecule or unit cell. This additional mass deficit will exist even if the atoms of same element were grouped together like two atoms of iron. As more and more molecules, atoms or unit cells occupy more space in an object, the combined deficit will further increase. Eventually, an object of one centimeter cube will have more percentage of deficit of mass compared to a single atom. The deficit of mass will increase as the object grows bigger in size.

A cloud of gas or dust will have even more deficit in mass. It is similar to the decrease in resultant force as the angle between the individual forces increases. A ring kept around the earth will stay in place. The gravity of the ring will be zero hence it has zero measured mass. All of its mass becomes deficit because each pair of particles on the opposite side of the ring are placed at 180o apart, therefore their combined gravity becomes zero. The deficit of mass in an object is not an indication to the amount of energy an object contains. Even though the total mass of a ring becomes deficit, it will have more energy than a cloud of dust made from same amount of material within the ring. Another important point to note in regard to the deficit in mass in the ring is that there is no release of energy equal to the amount of mass that was deficit in the ring. An object will have a zero deficit of mass; means the combined mass of all the particles will be equal to the mass of the object when that object collapses to a point size similar to the resultant force becoming equal to the sum of all the individual forces when all the forces acts in a line in the same direction.

The gravity of the earth on one kilogram iron bar at the surface of the earth is weak because the entire material within the earth is pulling the iron bar in a wide angle. If the earth ever collapses to a point mass then the same point size earth will exert tremendous amount of gravity on the object kept at the present surface of the earth.

The concept of mole or Avogadro constant (NA) gives us an impression that the number of atoms of an element inside an object will measure the same amount of mass irrespective of the amount of space those atoms occupy. It basically makes the size of the object irrelevant in measuring the mass of the object.

The prevailing procedure for the measurement of NA is as follows. The volume of a single unit cell will be determined using the x-ray crystallography and then the number of such cells will be calculated in one cubic centimeter volume. By applying the data for the density, molar mass and the number of atoms in a cell, the value for the Avogadro number is calculated.

Volume of a single unit cell of an element = v cm3

Number of unit cells in one cubic centimeter = 1/v

Number of atoms in a unit cell = n

Number of atoms in one cubic centimeter = (1/v) * n = N atoms/ cm3

Molar volume = Molar mass/Density = Vm cm3

Avogadro number, NA = (Vm * N) atoms/g-mole

Following are the characteristics of the Titanium used to derive the Avogadro number [3].

Unit cell volume for the Titanium = (3.306 x 10-8)3 cm3

Number of atoms in a body centric unit cell = 2

Molar mass = 47.88 g

Density = 4.401 g/cm3

By applying the above values, we get the value for NA as 6.02 x 1023 atoms/g-mol. Instead of atoms/g-mol, it is appropriate to name the constant as atoms/molar-volume. In the above procedure, we basically calculated the number of atoms in a given volume. The above derivation doesn’t establish any relation between the grams and number of atoms in an object. The molar mass and the density were simply used to derive a certain volume. This derived volume was used to measure the number of atoms depending upon the size of the unit cell and the number of atoms in each cell. The assumed relationship between the molar mass, density and the molar volume doesn’t exist in reality. The same object with same number of atoms will measure different amounts of mass depending upon the size, shape and the orientation of that object towards the earth. Therefore the Avogadro constant, an object of molar mass containing a fixed number of atoms, is simply a myth. It is no wonder why we don’t have a precise value for this constant.

### Conclusion

The mass or gravity of an object depends upon the amount of space the particles occupy within that object along with the total number of basic particles in the object. A nucleus exhibits deficit in mass when there is an increase in the amount of space the particles occupied. The inverse square law doesn’t apply to the gravity. The root cause for the observed galactic orbital velocity [4] at the outskirts of a galaxy and the Pioneer anomaly [5] is the present definition of mass. Gravity of an object also increases as it starts to appear smaller in size as the sun viewed from outskirts of the solar system. Even though the gravity of the sun is weak at these depths, all the gravity works in a line making it stronger than normal. Gravity between objects will increase as the angle of projection decreases.

Gravity between two spherical objects separated at a distance of one meter with each having one cubic meter in volume will increase tremendously if those two objects were collapsed to a point size objects. Gravity is a strong force when the objects interacting are of point size and most probably it is the strong nuclear force itself. Inconsistency between mass, gravity, size and energy of an object made the single fundamental force to appear in many different forms such as gravity and strong nuclear force. By the time the strong nuclear force was discovered, gravity was a firmly established theory based on the then prevailing fundamental concepts. Because the newly discovered force was stronger than the gravity, it was assumed that the new force was altogether a different force. The new force was then formulated with its own principles. Formulation of the same force with different equations made the unification of these two forces very difficult. Theory of everything or the unification of fundamental forces is nothing but discarding the ambiguity in the definition of mass. It is also the simplest, most logical and rationale solution for innumerous other anomalies prevailing in the field of physics.

### References

1. L. Meitner and O.R. Frisch, Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: a New Type of Nuclear Reaction, Nature Vol. 143, No. 3615 (February 11, 1939).
2. K. Marasakatla, Gravity from a New Angle, 2009.
3. D. Whitten and S. Peck, General Chemistry, College Publishing, 2000.
4. V. Rubin, Rotation of the Andromeda nebula from a Spectroscopic Survey of Emission Regions, Astrophysical Journal, pp 159:379 (1970).
5. J. Anderson et al., Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration, Physical Review Letters, 81: pp2858-2861 (1998).

Categories: Physics

## Cause, Origin and Continuation of Plate Tectonics

Cause, Origin and Continuation of Plate Tectonics

KARUNAKAR MARASAKATLA
Date: 18th August, 2002

### Summary

Cause of the Earth’s surface manifestations appears to be external to the Earth. Gravitational attraction of the galactic center causes the tides to form in the mantle of the Earth when the solar system reaches the nearest position to the galactic center. Pair of troughs takes shape in the mantle adjacent to the tides as the low and high tides in the ocean. Upwelling tides or megablobs breaks the continental crust and disperses the plates towards the troughs on the surface. In the subsequent cycle, when the solar system again reaches the nearest position to the galactic center, megablobs interchange with the troughs and reassemble the continental crust. In other words, two galactic cycles of the solar system makes one Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth. It appears that the Supercontinent cycle started on the Earth around 2800 million years ago. Nucleation of the inner core was initiated in this period with the beginning of the Plate tectonics. Supercontinent cycle continues as long as the solar system revolves around the galactic center in the presence of liquid outer core in the interior and water on the surface of the Earth.

### Introduction

From the time the continental drift was proposed, there were many explanations for the cause of continental movement on the surface of the Earth. But none of them were successfully explained the process and eventually each of those theories left behind some unanswered questions. Even into this period, many people consider the Plate tectonics with skepticism due to the same reason. Undoubtedly there is enormous data in support of this phenomenon. On these grounds the phenomenon itself can’t be rejected as imaginary. In this hypothesis, the cause of the Plate tectonics is proposed as the revolution of the solar system around the galactic center. Before dealing with the mechanics of the process, it is necessary to detail some of the characteristics of the phenomenon and existing theories.

### What is Plate Tectonics?

In general, Plate tectonics can be defined as the formation of the plates and their movement on the surface of the Earth. In the early part of the Earth history, the trace of Plate tectonics is isolated and not part of a continuous process. Plates continuously dispersed and collided as part of the Supercontinent cycle in the later part of the Earth history. In this period it is difficult perceive the Plate tectonics without the Supercontinent cycle. The period in which the Plate tectonics was associated with the Supercontinent cycle stands apart from the period of irregular movement of the plates. Therefore, if we redefine the Plate tectonics as the continuous and orderly movement of the plates then the beginning of the first Supercontinental cycle should be regarded as the beginning of Plate tectonics on this Earth.

### Fixed Duration of the Supercontinent Cycle

It is interesting to note that the duration of the Supercontinent cycle is always fixed. Even though it is difficult to trace the exact position of the past continental movements, there are other factors which describe this cyclic nature. Collissional mountain ranges, sea level changes, traces of global ice age and other similar deposits explains the formation of Supercontinents after every 425 million years (My) (1). This cyclic nature and the fixed duration of each cycle are important in understanding the Plate tectonics.

### Theories of Plate Tectonics

Often the cause of Plate tectonics was described as the subduction of old and dense oceanic plate. According to this theory, breakup of the Supercontinental crust creates new oceanic basins. As the plates move apart, the oceanic plate accompanying the continental plate grows older and the density of the crust increases. After about 200 My, the oceanic plate starts subducting into the mantle and converges the divided continental margins again as a Supercontinent.

This form of crustal movement doesn’t generate a regular Supercontinent cycle. At most plates move irregularly on the surface of a planet. As the oceanic plate grows older on both sides of the ridge, subduction should start on both sides of the ridge after 200 My. For the continents to converge, subduction has to begin only at one end of the oceanic plate. Most probably the subduction initiates at the continental margin of the dispersed continent.

Another hypothesis explains the cause as the formation and interchange of megablobs and troughs in the mantle (2). This hypothesis captures the cyclic nature of the Plate tectonics. Temperature anomalies at the core mantle boundary were explained as the cause for the formation of these megablobs. Without the Plate tectonics, temperature in the interior of the planet will be uniform at any specific depth. Under these conditions it is difficult to explain the initiation of megablobs or existence of anomalies at any point of time. This hypothesis doesn’t explain how and when the first blobs were formed inside the Earth. A review of this hypothesis (3) also mentioned that the data do not explain the development and evolution of the megablobs.

If we assume the formation of the blobs due to the bombardment of bolides, then there should be a regular interval of the bolide impacts. Mass of the bolide and the place of impact are also important in generating the Supercontinent cycle. Possibilities of the bolide impacts generating the interchanging blobs are very minimal. Continuous formation and survival of the megablobs is possible only when there is a persistent source of heat supply in the interior of the Earth. Megablobs can be compared with the upwelling in boiling water. Any rigorous convection will stop immediately after the heat source was shut off; like the shutting off the burner under the boiling water stops the upwelling of the water. Even if small scale convection remains in the hot water, upwelling can’t form without the heat from the burner.

Liquid core should not be considered as a persistent source of heat supply because the total energy in the core is not increasing at any point of time. Liquid core is similar to the hot water in a container with the burner turned off. All the heat in the interior of the Earth is trapped from the molten period of the Earth. Small scale heat generation in the core due to the decay of radioactive elements is not sufficient to initiate the megablobs in the mantle. Therefore, it is not possible to explain the formation of the megablobs in the absence of a persistent heat source in the core.

### Galactic Rotation Causes the Plate Tectonics

Earth was in molten state in the early period of its formation and later differentiated into layers. All the objects like the early Earth, without any internal heat generation, cools from the outer layers to inner layers if left undisturbed. As soon as the boiling upwellings disappear on the surface of the molten Earth, surface quickly cools down and forms as an insulated layer similar to the formation of a layer on the surface of the boiled milk when the burner turned off or minimized. After the formation of the insulated layer, heat radiates from the planet at a slower rate. Eventually the insulated layer grows thicker and spreads inward as the heat escapes from the object. At this stage, we can forcefully cool the object faster than it radiates either by continuously peeling off the insulated layer as it forms or by stirring the interior. Shaking the object stirs the interior and breaks the insulated layer. Heat escapes from the interior at the edges of the broken plates until the plates were fused together. In either case it needs external interference in the object to dissipate the heat from its interior faster than it radiates.

All these days the picture of Plate tectonics was described as the upwelling of a liquid in a container on the burner. This picture portrays the mantle as something is continuously heating it from the below. It is obvious that enough heat is not generating in the interior of the Earth to support the convection in the mantle. Therefore the convection in the mantle is similar to the convection in the liquid but the cause of the convection is not the heating from below. In the absence of a persistent heat source in the interior, the cause of mantle dynamics could only be explainable using an external force. So what is this external force that is causing the instabilities in the mantle?

As the solar system revolves around the galactic center, a pair of tides or megablobs forms in the mantle due to the gravitational attraction of the galactic center when the solar system is at nearest position to the galactic center. Troughs take shape in the mantle adjacent to the megablobs. Unlike the tides in the ocean, these tides in the mantle stay at their origin due to the high viscosity of the mantle. Due to the continuous rotation of the Earth, no part of the Earth will be continuously point towards the galactic center. Under these conditions the megablob possibly forms under the Supercontinent due to its compression on the mantle. Upwelling megablob breaks the Supercontinental crust and forms different plates on the surface. Upwelling blob also exert a push on the continental plates and enable them to slide on the oceanic crust. Continental plates gradually drift away from each other towards the troughs in the mantle. As the solar system drifts away from the galactic center, the blobs diminish in intensity. Continents disperse to the maximum extent when they reach the troughs and remain stationary at this position for the remaining period of the galactic cycle. When the solar system again reaches the nearest position to the galactic center, blobs interchange with the troughs in the mantle. These newly formed blobs push the dispersed continental plates towards the troughs. As the solar system passes through its path, blobs diminish and a Supercontinent forms with the collision of the continental plates. When the solar system again reaches the nearest position to the galactic center, blobs form at the place of earlier troughs and break the Supercontinental crust.

This model explains the cause of instabilities in the mantle as external and cyclic in nature with a fixed duration for each cycle. The tides resulting from the galactic rotation forcefully cools the interior of the Earth by breaking the crust into different plates and moving them on the surface. As the heat escapes from the Earth at the ridges, mantle draws the energy form the core at the core mantle boundary. As a result rigorous convection initiates in the liquid core to replenish the loss of heat at the core mantle boundary. Convection eventually cools the liquid core because there is no other heat generating mechanism exists in the interior of the Earth. Loss of heat in the core causes the crystallization of the core material. Solid material sinks and accumulates at the center of the Earth. Gradual collection of the material at the center of the Earth forms as a solid inner core.

All the heat in the Earth’s interior is believed as the trapped heat from its formation. If heat generates in the interior of the planet, core crystallization will not proceed. All the heat escaped at the ridges will get replenished with the heat generating at the center and liquid core never cools down. But this doesn’t appear to be happening in the interior of the Earth. At present there is no viable mechanism for generating the heat in the interior of the Earth. Therefore all the circumstances and the data lead to the conclusion that any planet or similar object can’t initiate the Plate tectonics on its own. External interference is required to cause the internal disturbance because the planetary body is not a heat generating object. Gravitational attraction of the galactic center on the mantle of the Earth when the solar system is at the nearest position to the galactic center appears to be the plausible explanation for the formation of megablobs in the mantle. Gravitational tides also appear to be forming inside the Earth and the Moon in a smaller scale with the interactions between the Earth, Moon and the Sun. None of the forces in the solar system are sufficient to form the megablobs in the mantle of the Earth extending for millions of years. Therefore, the galactic revolution appears to be the strong possibility for the formation of megablobs in the mantle.

Even though it requires two galactic cycles to complete a Supercontinent cycle, only the end of the second cycle appears to be significant. All the continents converge to form as a Supercontinent at the end of the second galactic cycle. Seafloor spreading drastically reduces with possibly a pause in Plate tectonics and causes a global ice age on the surface of the Earth (1). Tectonic pause possibly fuses all the plates and forms as a single layer covering all the surface of the Earth. Plate tectonics continues as a Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth; not necessarily as a continuous movement of the plates. Upwelling megablobs breaks the Supercontinental crust and creates the new plates. Global warming resulting from the breakup of the Supercontinent melts the ice sheets and floods the continental regions.

At the end of the first cycle, the continents will be dispersed and moving at different directions at different speeds. A pause in Plate tectonics is not possible in this period even though this may also reach a state of minimum seafloor spreading. Tectonic pause, global glaciation, global flooding and mass extinction marks the end of second galactic cycle as significant compared to the end of first cycle.

### Beginning of Plate Tectonics

Even though there is a trace of Plate tectonics as early as 3700 Ma (4), it doesn’t appear to be cyclic in nature from this period. This could be the result of crustal movement due to the late heavy bombardment of bolides in that period. Earth witnessed heavy bombardment of bolides between 4000-3800 Ma (5). The trace of Plate tectonics could even be the result of crustal settlement on the surface of the Earth due to differentiation and further cooling of the surface. In any case, we don’t see the evidence for the cyclic amalgamation and separation of continental plates between 4500 – 2800 Ma on the surface of the Earth. Most of this early history of the Earth can be described as a static period.

From 2800 Ma, there were a total of six complete Supercontinent cycles with a duration of about 425 My for each cycle (1). If the cyclic nature of the Plate tectonics and the megablobs are correlated, then the blobs could be forming in the Earth only from 2800 Ma. Cratons start moving on the surface as soon as the blobs form in the mantle. It requires at least another 200 My for the first subducted slabs to descend to the core mantle boundary. At the same time, the trace of liquid core also takes about the same amount of period to reach the surface for the first time. In the absence of megablobs, all the volcanic activity might have originated in the upper mantle before 2800Ma. Heat released from the radioactive decay of unstable elements might be the cause of early volcanism.

Geomagnetism: As soon as the slabs descend to the core mantle boundary, rigorous convection initiates in the liquid core due to the heat transfer at the core mantle boundary. Geomagnetism is believed as the result of convection in the liquid core. Because the gap between the subduction and the core mantle boundary interactions is about 200 My, the present intensity in the geomagnetism possibly related to the rate of subduction around 200 Ma. Increase in the geomagnetic intensity around 2700 Ma (6) indicates the beginning of the Supercontinent cycle before this period.

Inner Core Nucleation: Core nucleation initiates and rapidly proceeds when the first slab descends to the core mantle boundary. Massive drawing of the energy from the core initiates the inner core nucleation. The present concept of later development of the inner core (7) around 2500 Ma is also indicates the beginning of the Supercontinent cycle before this period. Before the initiation of inner core nucleation, all the energy released from the radioactive decay distributes uniformly all around the surface and melts the interior of the planet. Megablobs and the internal heat eventually melt the whole planet. Therefore it is not possible for the Earth to have regular crustal movement as long as massive heat is generating in the interior.

An alternative theory proposes that the inner core was developed to the present size in a few hundred million years after the Earth’s formation. Initial cooling of the molten Earth was reasoned as the cause for the early nucleation of the inner core. The process of forming an insulated layer doesn’t require convection in the interior. As long as heat generates inside the early Earth, cold surface material falls back and convection continues in the whole planet. Once the heat source was shut off and system reaches the state of equilibrium, cold surface material quickly joins together and forms as an insulated layer. As soon as the layer forms, it obstructs further loss of heat from the object. Subsequently the heat escapes through the insulated layer at a slower rate. At this stage, further loss of heat only occurs when there is a crustal movement on the surface of the Earth. Early initiation of inner core nucleation is not justifiable without the presence of Plate tectonics at that period. Continuous trace of Plate tectonics as well as the core elements on the surface of the Earth from the early period is essential to the notion of early nucleation of the inner core. Oldest known trace element of the core appears to be around 2600 Ma (8). All the data and physical processes only indicate the later development of the inner core. Therefore, the initiation of inner core nucleation can be associated with the beginning of Supercontinent cycle on the Earth around 2800 ma.

The Beginning: Ancient texts described the beginning of the first Supercontinental period around 2800 Ma as the beginning of time (1, 9). Ancient Vedic texts mentioned that the stars started to move in the sky from this period. It was also mentioned that the Earth and the solar system started to revolve around the galactic center from this period. Higher rise in the sea level associated with each Supercontinental breakup period was described as a global deluge on the Earth. The period between two consecutive global deluges was described as a Manvantara with a duration of 308 My. Vedic texts described that the Earth and the solar system revolves around the galactic center within the Manvantara.

Earth witnessed the beginning of Supercontinent cycle, initiation of inner core nucleation, intensity in geomagnetism, emergence of the continental regions possibly due to the melting of the ice sheets and the beginning of terrestrial ecosystems around 2800 Ma. All these episodes mark this period as distinct from the formation of the Earth around 4500 Ma. Because of all these factors, ancient cultures might have treated this period as the beginning on the Earth. The beginning described by the ancient cultures should not be considered as the beginning of the existence of the world; it is only the beginning of the orderly movement of already existing material world.

### Alternative Theories to the Plate Tectonics

There were many explanations for the continental movement from the time it was proposed. Even the widely accepted Plate tectonics was itself evolved through different explanations for the phenomenon. Other concepts of the continental movement either accept the Plate tectonics with minor differences or completely oppose the same.

Through out this article it was assumed that the Earth is not generating any heat inside the core; a widely accepted notion in Earth Sciences. However, an alternate view is that a part of the Earth’s inner core works as a nuclear reactor generating the heat required for the Plate tectonics (10). An on and off reactor might be able to reverse the geomagnetic poles, but that environment doesn’t create the necessities required for the initiation and survival of Plate tectonics. Heat generated by the reactor diffuses uniformly all around the inner core. Gradually the interior of the planet and the outer layers melts with the increasing heat. Eventually the whole planet becomes a molten object. Heat escapes uniformly all around the surface. Under these conditions Plate tectonics will never materialize on a planet. More over the Supercontinent cycle extending for millions of years is not possible in an environment with much less period for the on/off cycle. This hypothesis also proposes that the geo reactor was working from the formation of the Earth around 4500 Ma, but the trace of Supercontinent cycle is available only from 2800 Ma on the surface of this planet. Most of the available data is consistent with the hypothesis explained in this article, therefore this article continue to assume that the Earth is not generating the heat inside the core.

The theory of expanding Earth completely opposes the concepts of Plate tectonics. According to this theory, continents were separating from each other only from 200 Ma. This theory literally ignores the earlier history of the Earth from its formation. Expansion of the Earth was cited as the cause for the separation of continents. The cause of the expansion ranges from collision to the unknown phenomenon not yet observed. Strong argument of this theory is that even the Plate tectonics wouldn’t explain the cause of the continental movement successfully. Uncertainties existed in the earlier theories of the Plate tectonics but contrary to the notion of expanding Earth, data strongly supported the long history of the Earth prior to the beginning of the supposed expansion. The hypothesis of galactic rotation explains the cause of the phenomenon in a simple and comprehensive manner. Vast amount of data and the underlying physical processes are in accordance with this hypothesis. Any other alternative theory has to explain all the available data and the physical processes to gain the support. Expanding Earth or all other alternative theories doesn’t appear to fall in this category.

### How Long the Plate Tectonics Sustains on the Earth?

It is evident that the Earth completed six complete Supercontinent cycles from 2800 Ma and the present is the seventh cycle. For the survival of Plate tectonics on the Earth, the solar system should continue to revolve around the galactic center. The presence of liquid core in the interior of the Earth is also essential to replenish the loss of heat in the mantle. Water also should be present on the surface to cool and solidify the upwelling material at the oceanic ridges. All these things will probably sustain until the red giant phase of our Sun in another three to four billion years.

Vedic texts described the period of the habitable Earth as fourteen Manvantara cycles. It means the Earth will sustain another seven Supercontinent cycles apart from the current one. It requires another 3 billion years to complete these seven cycles and this period is in conjunction with the modern estimates for the habitable environment to present on the surface of the Earth. Vedic texts also mentioned that fire destroys all the life on the planet at the end of the fourteenth Manvantara cycle and vaporizes all the water on the surface of the Earth. After the loss of life, darkness abounds for a period equal to another fourteen Manvantara cycles. Life emerges and sustains for another fourteen Manvantara cycles after the dark period. According to Vedic texts, this cycle of life and darkness, each with a period of fourteen Manvantara cycles repeated many number of times in the past and continue in the future.

### Supercontinents and the Galactic Cycles

All the available data suggests a fixed duration of 425 My for the Supercontinent cycle (1). However, the Rhodinia Supercontinent cycle appears to be spanned from 1500 Ma to 700 Ma, a period of 800 My. If the galactic rotation is the cause of the Plate tectonics, then such a wide span is not possible for a single Supercontinent cycle. According to this hypothesis, two galactic cycles constitutes one Supercontinent cycle. Current estimate for the galactic cycle is around 200 My (11). The present estimate for these two cycles appears to be compliance with each other. According to this hypothesis, the duration of the Supercontinent cycle would be fixed and it doesn’t span longer or shorter than two galactic cycles. The Supercontinent which formed around 1100 Ma might have broken apart in few million years after its formation. Another Supercontinent which broke apart around 700 Ma might have formed in few million years before its breakup.

Even though the Supercontinent cycle and two galactic cycles representing a same geological event, the time taken for these cycles was derived using two different methods. One method is using the directly visible galactic rotation and the other is using the radioactive decay of the unstable elements. According to the present understanding, the progress of time in these two cycles is continuous and independent of each other. One important aspect common in these two cycles is their fixed duration for each cycle. When these two time periods were describing the same geological events, then they should always be the same. It provides a unique opportunity to check the time taken for the astronomical and radioactive processes for the same period between two geological events. It is also important to realize the significance of the galactic cycle in reshaping the surface of the Earth. Sedimentary layers between the two Supercontinental periods can be described as the tidal deposits of two galactic cycles. From this observation, it appears that every major astronomical cycle leaves its mark on the surface of the Earth.

If there is a difference in time between the geologic and astronomical cycles, then one of the underlying processes either the astronomical motion or the radioactive decay could be varying with time. Until the relation is firmly established between the time measured with the astronomical cycles and the time derived from the radioactive decay, it is necessary to mention every ancient point of time with the mode of derivation. If the refined measurements for the galactic rotation yields the period as 100 My for a single cycle, then according to this hypothesis, 200 My of two galactic rotations equals to the 425 My of radioactive decay. In this case, it wouldn’t be appropriate to say that the Earth completed two complete cycles around the galactic center from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary at 200 Ma; a period derived from the radioactive decay.

### Plate Tectonics on Other Planets

Because all other planets of the solar system were also revolving around the galactic center along with the Earth, galactic cycle would also cause the Plate tectonics on these planets if all the conditions required for the phenomenon were existing at any point of time. Even if it continued for fewer cycles, the duration of the Supercontinent cycle would also be similar to the one on the surface of the Earth.

When the Plate tectonics is of a galactic nature, then the other planetary systems in the galaxy should also posses the phenomenon. The duration for the Supercontinent cycle on the planet depends upon the period for the galactic cycle of the planetary system. If any Earth like planet has the same period for the galactic cycle, then the period for the Supercontinent cycle on that planet would also be similar to the Earth. Ancient Vedic texts mentioned that there are fourteen worlds in this galaxy. Among them the Earth (Bhur-loka) and the Heaven (Swar-loka) were described as having the same duration for the galactic cycle. It was also mentioned that the Swar-loka also completed the same number of revolutions around the galactic center as our Earth from the first global deluge on the Earth. As the past six Manvantara cycles on the Earth (1), six Indra periods were completed on the Swar-loka and the present is the period of the seventh Indra. As each Manu period begins with a global deluge on the Earth, Indra periods also begin with a global deluge on the Swar-loka. From these descriptions, it appears that the Plate tectonics is present on the surface of the Swar-loka. It was also mentioned that a day and night period on this planet equals to one year on the Earth; a year is 360 years of the Earth.

### Before the Beginning

Data suggests that the Supercontinent cycle began on the Earth around 2800 Ma. There is no evidence for the cyclic amalgamation and separation of continents from the formation of the Earth around 4500 Ma to this period. It is widely believed that the planetary system was gradually evolved from its formation to the present. In the present theories, we wouldn’t find any proposal for drastic changes in the evolution of the solar system from at least 4000 Ma to the present. But the data suggests that there was a transition period around 2800 Ma between the early static history and the later dynamic history of the Earth. Essential environments required for the initiation and survival of Plate tectonics are the galactic revolution of the Earth, liquid core, mantle, lithosphere, hydrosphere and the continental crust. Plate tectonics initiates on the surface as soon as all of these environments materializes on the Earth. According to the present scientific theories, even the gaseous nebula was also revolving around the galactic center and the same revolution was cited as one of the causes for the collapse of the cloud into the proto-planetary disk. Hydrosphere appears to be present on the surface of the Earth as early as 4400 Ma (12). Formation of the liquid core and the mantle was placed even before the formation of the hydrosphere. Lithosphere, a thick rigid crust on the surface of the Earth, also forms earlier than the hydrosphere. Earliest trace of the continental crust was found around 4000 Ma. Analysis of the Zircon crystals suggests the presence of the continental crust even before this period. All the environments required for the initiation of Plate tectonics appears to exist at least from 4000 Ma. Data suggests the initiation of Supercontinent cycle only around 2800 Ma. Under these circumstances, it appears that any one of the environments might have developed late in the Earth history. If we assume the formation of the lithosphere and the galactic revolution of the solar system as uncertain elements, then there would be three possibilities for the initiation of Plate tectonics.

Continuing galactic revolutions and the later formation of the lithosphere: Earth was in molten state in the early period of its formation. If the early solar system was revolving around the galactic center, then the megablobs were also should be forming in the molten Earth. Megablobs in the completely molten planets would be chaotic in the entire solar system. Megablobs keep churning the planet until the formation of the lithosphere. Churning of the mantle also generates the heat and extends the molten period of the planet. Heat generated by the decay of radioactive elements also extends the molten period of the Earth. Under these conditions, lithosphere probably forms very late in the Earth history. In each galactic cycle, megablobs break the thin crust into small plates and clump them together at the troughs instead of forming the Plate tectonics. Oceanic crust doesn’t form under the upwelling megablob. Cratons continue to move in a Supercontinent cycle all along the history of the Earth. Cratons disperse and reassemble in every two galactic cycles. Mostly hot environment prevails in this period. Upwelling plumes on the surface wouldn’t be conducive for the complete formation of the hydrosphere. Patches of hydrosphere might have formed at the troughs in each galactic cycle. Formation of new blobs at the earlier troughs evaporates the hydrosphere and condenses at the new troughs. Lithosphere forms as the mantle cools down and the possibility of inner core formation in this period is very minimal. Plate tectonics would begin at different periods on different planets because the formation of complete rigid crust depends on the size and composition of the planet. To begin the Plate tectonics around 2800 Ma, complete lithosphere shouldn’t form earlier to this period. All the available data suggests the early formation of the lithosphere. Moreover it is difficult for the segregation to survive inside the Earth with the massive churning of the entire molten Earth. Therefore megablobs might not have formed in the early molten Earth.

Continuing galactic revolutions and the early formation of the lithosphere: To avoid the churning of the entire molten Earth, lithosphere has to form in less than one galactic cycle, a period of 200 My. If the lithosphere formed within the first galactic cycle of the molten Earth, then the trace of Plate tectonics should also be present continuously from that period because all other environments required for the initiation of Plate tectonics were existing as early as 4400 Ma. Solid inner core should also be forming with the initiation of Plate tectonics. If the early Earth was generating the heat with the decay of radioactive elements then the molten period of the Earth also gets extended. Lithosphere forms only when heat is not generating inside the Earth. If the Plate tectonics starts after the formation of the lithosphere, then the inner core nucleation also begins in the interior of the Earth. All the available data suggest the later development of the Plate tectonics and the inner core. Therefore, the data and the physical processes associated with the early Earth are inconsistent with the notion of galactic revolution of the early molten Earth.

Early formation of the lithosphere and later initiation of the galactic revolutions: All the available data suggests the early cooling of the molten Earth. Lithosphere, hydrosphere and the continental crust formed as early as 4400 Ma. Earth remained cold for most of the early history. Intermittent bombardment of bolides and volcanism thawed the environment but there weren’t any major crustal movements in this period. Beginning of the movement of the solar system around the galactic center could have initiated the Plate tectonics on the surface of the Earth around 2800 Ma. Galactic revolution of the Earth is a characteristic of the entire solar system; therefore, if the beginning of the galactic revolution was the cause of the initiation of Plate tectonics then the Plate tectonics would begin at the same time on all the planetary bodies of the solar system. Even though all the data is constant with this notion, the concept of early stable solar system is not conceivable with the present theories of the planetary sciences.

Every molten object generates the blobs in its revolution around the galactic center including the Sun. Blobs continue to resurface on every planetary body and paves the surface until the formation of the lithosphere. In the Subsequent galactic cycle, Plate tectonics initiates if the blobs are sufficient to break the lithosphere. If the blobs are not sufficient to break the lithosphere, then the surface remains undisturbed from that period. Later the surface simply responds to the internal tides as long as there is a mantle. As mentioned earlier, if the solar system was revolving around the galactic center from the beginning then the Plate tectonics would begin at different periods on different planetary bodies. If the beginning of the galactic revolution of the solar system initiated the Plate tectonics, then the Plate tectonics would begin at the same period on all the objects. Sun would appear brighter with the beginning of the galactic revolution due to the initiation of megablobs.

### Conclusion

The cause of the Plate tectonics appears to be external to the Earth because there is no viable mechanism for generating heat inside the Earth to cause perturbations in the mantle. Revolution of the solar system around the galactic center appears to be the cause of perturbations in the mantle. Orderly movement of the tectonic plates in a Supercontinent cycle is the result of two galactic cycles of the solar system. Core nucleation is the result of the tidal perturbations in the mantle. It was widely believed that the latent heat released from the crystallization of the inner core fuels the convection in the mantle. The sequence of events according to this notion are cooling liquid core, formation of the solid inner core, release of latent heat, convection in the mantle and its surface manifestations. A well shielded liquid core doesn’t release the heat at the rate to cause the perturbations in the whole mantle. More over a continuous release of heat can’t form megablobs in the mantle. Heat generated by the decay of radioactive elements also can’t form the blobs in the mantle. Therefore, heat from the radioactive decay or the latent heat released from the nucleation of the inner core can’t initiate or sustain the Plate tectonics on the surface of the Earth. Only the galactic revolution of the Earth appears to be causing the megablobs to form in the mantle. Loss of heat in the liquid core maintains the viscousity of the mantle. According to the hypothesis described in this article, the sequence of events would be galactic rotation, perturbations in the mantle, plate movements, subduction of the oceanic crust, loss of heat in the liquid core and nucleation of the inner core.

Even though Earth formed around 4500 Ma, megablobs appear to be forming in the mantle only from 2800 Ma. Beginning of the galactic revolution of the solar system or the formation of lithosphere around this period might have initiated the Supercontinent cycle. Inner core nucleation initiated with the beginning of Plate tectonics. If the blobs evolved later in the Earth history, Earth might have expanded to some extent when the first blobs were formed in the interior. Without the internal dynamics, Earth’s surface looks more like a static environment. Crust start to move on the surface as soon as the blobs form in the mantle. If the megablobs diminish in size and no longer sufficient to break the crust, the planet probably shrinks and upper crust folds to accommodate the changes in the planet.

Ancient description of other planetary systems forming at the same time as our solar system is an indication to a cluster of systems acting collectively. Further exploration into the planetary formation and its early dynamics promises better understanding of the beginning of the Plate tectonics on the Earth. Formation and the evolution of the galaxy as well might influence the development of Plate tectonics.

### References and Notes

1. Karunakar Marasakatla, Tectonic Pause: Towards the Unification of Earth Sciences, published online at http://www.geocities.com/karunakarm/unifiedtheory.html on 11th March, 2001.
2. Allessandro M. Forte and Jerry X. Mitrovica, Deep-mantle high-viscosity flow and thermochemical structure inferred from seismic and geodynamic data, Nature 410, 1049-1056 (2001).
3. Michael Manga, Shaken, not stirred, Nature 410, 1041-1043 (2001).
4. Tsuyoshi Komiya. et al., Plate Tectonics at 3.8-3.7 Ga: Field Evidence from the Isua Accretionary Complex, Southern West Greenland, Journal of Geology 107, 515-554 (1999).
5. David. A. Kring and Barbara. A. Cohen, Cataclysmic bombardment throughout the inner solar system 3.9-4.0 Ga, Journal of Geophysical Research – Planets, 107, E2 (2002).
6. C. J. Hale, Palaeomagnetic data suggest link between the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary and inner-core nucleation, Nature 329, 233-237 (1987).
7. Stephane Labrosse, Jean-Paul Poirier and Jean Louis Le Mouel, The age of the inner core, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 190, 111-123 (2001).
8. Anders Meibom and Robert Frei, Evidence for an Ancient Osmium Isotopic Reservoir in Earth, Science 296, 516-518 (2002).
9. Karunakar Marasakatla, Earth History from the Ancient Texts and It’s Relevance to the Science, published online at http://www.geocities.com/karunakarm/ancienttexts.html on 18th August, 2002.
10. D.F. Hollenbach and J.M. Herndon, Deep-Earth reactor: Nuclear fission, helium, and the geomagnetic field, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98, 11085-11090 (2001).
11. M.J. Reid, A.C.S. Readhead, R.C. Vermeulen and R.N. Treuhaft, The Proper Motion of SgrA*, American Astronomical Society Meeting #194 – Chicago, Illinois, May/June 1999.
12. John W. Valley, William H. Peck, Elizabeth M. King and Simon A. wide, A cool early Earth, Geology 30 4, 351-354 (2002).

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Categories: Physics

## Tectonic Pause: Towards the Unification of Earth Sciences

Tectonic Pause: Towards the Unification of Earth Sciences

KARUNAKAR MARASAKATLA
Date: 11th March, 2001

### Summary

Life on Earth reels under the Supercontinent cycles. Every Supercontinent forms with the collision and merger of all the plates causing a “tectonic pause”. Reduced seafloor spreading and albedo advances the ice sheets towards the equator. Massive ice sheets cover the ocean and whole or part of the Supercontinent causing a global ice age or snowball Earth event. Base of the continents further sinks into the mantle with the increased weight of the ice sheets. Increased pressure within the mantle forms as a superplume under the Supercontinent and eventually breaks the Supercontinental crust giving the new plates. Superplume with the increased seafloor spreading and the albedo causes a severe global warming and rapidly melts the ice sheets, exiting the global ice age. Rapid melting of the ice sheets floods the lowered continental regions. Isostacy gradually uplifts the submerged continental crust above the sea level. Each break in the crust causes a global warming and merger of plates causes an ice age. Mass extinctions occur in the ice age and global warming periods. Evolution takes place in the post global warming period. Ice ages and global warming forms the distinct boundaries in the sedimentary layers.

### Introduction

The two major sources of heat supply onto the surface of Earth are solar radiation and the mid-ocean ridges. Variation in the incoming solar radiation or insolation initiates the dynamics of the ice sheet and the change in the seafloor spreading accelerates the movement. Extent of the ice sheets on the surface of the Earth defines the ice ages and global warming. Variation in the insolation due to the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit is predominantly accepted cause for the 100,000-year period (1) ice age cycle (henceforth will be referred as cycle). Rate of seafloor spreading can change in the events of continental collision, ridge formation and ridge-trench collision. Advance and retreat of the ice sheets will be more or less same if the seafloor spreading is constant throughout the period of a single cycle. Reduction in the rate of seafloor spreading advances the ice sheets more than it retreats in a single cycle. Reduced seafloor spreading and the albedo together advances the ice sheets to more extent in multiple cycles.

Increased rate of seafloor spreading retreats the ice sheets more than the advance in a single cycle. As a result glaciations will not be severe in the period of increased seafloor spreading. Rapid increase in the seafloor spreading combined with the albedo and green house effect causes a severe global warming and accelerates the retreat of ice sheets. Thawing period of the cycle also acts as an accelerator to the global warming and rapidly melts the ice sheets. Reduced seafloor spreading followed by a sudden increase in the rate of seafloor spreading is what the icehouse and hothouse scenarios happened in the geological past. Even though the sun plays a major role in controlling the climate, seafloor spreading and albedo acts as accelerators to that climate change and ultimately dictates the climate on the Earth.

### Snowball Earth: Supercontinental Global Ice Age

#### Supercontinent and the Global Glaciation

Continents collided and separated many times in the history of the Earth. Collision of the continents creates the folded mountains at the subduction zone and this mountain buildup slows the subduction process, ultimately stopping the subduction when all the forces acting at the subduction zone nullifies each other in a state of equilibrium. When all the subduction zones in the Supercontinent formation reaches the state of equilibrium, plates stops moving and closes all the ridges forming a single plate in a “tectonic pause”. Drastic reduction in the rate of seafloor spreading combined with the albedo effect advances the ice sheets towards the equator in multiple cycles. Reduced subduction also diminishes the activity of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. Eventually ocean freezes and ice sheets spreads on the Supercontinental crust forming a snowball Earth event (2). Removal of water from the oceans and depositing on the continental crust as the ice sheets drastically reduces the sea level and exposes the continental shelves. Continental collision and the uplift of the folded mountains reduces the total continental landmass and further reduces the sea level. Contracted denser sea water stops circulating in the oceans. Stagnated anoxic frozen ocean and the exposed continental shelves cause a major mass extinction of the marine life. The displaced mantle due to the gradual sinking of the Supercontinent may possibly uplift the oceanic crust. Reduced pressure on the oceanic crust due to the lower sea level may also help in uplifting the oceanic crust. Initially sea level decreases with the extending ice sheets and later may increase to some extent due to the uplift of the oceanic crust. In this period Supercontinent remains stationary on a single plate until it’s subsequent breakup and this “tectonic pause” could be very brief period.

#### Survival of Species in the Supercontinental Period

Plumes are the only vent for the dissipation of heat within the mantle and will be continuously active in the Supercontinental period. Probably more plumes form on the crust and eventually emerge onto the surface from the oceanic crust in the lowered sea level. Life in this Supercontinental period survives around these hotspots on the continental and oceanic crust.  Ice free continental tropics also provide habitable environment for the species.  In every global ice age or Supercontinental period all the life forms on different continents gathers on a single landmass. Species have to survive the encroaching ice sheets in smaller habitable areas and also have to safeguard themselves from the new predators joined from the other continents.

#### Breakup of the Supercontinent

Except in few low-latitude continental regions and around the hotspots, massive ice sheets covers the planet and makes the Supercontinent heavier. Even though more number of plumes continuously active in the Supercontinental period, they can’t compensate the total heat loss caused by the ridges. As a result pressure builds up in the mantle and forms as a superplume or intensifies an existing plume under the Supercontinental crust. Gradual subsidence of the uplifted oceanic crust may also increase the pressure within the mantle. Superplume heats the stationary and heavier Supercontinent and weakens the crust. Continuous buildup of pressure within the mantle eventually breaks the weak and heavier Supercontinental crust to evenly distribute the weight on the surface. At the same time oceanic and continental margin breaks to form the new trenches. This will be a violent and explosive period in the life of the Earth. Open ridge and the superplume spews the green house gases causing a severe global warming and also ejects massive amounts of magma onto the continental crust forming an extensive deposit of flood basalts (3). Global warming rapidly melts the ice sheets and increases the sea level. Newly created continental plates rapidly slide onto the oceanic crust with a trench migration. Increased seafloor spreading and albedo with the thawing period of the cycle further melts the ice sheets. Water seeps into the new ridges with the increased sea level and forms as the new shallow ocean basins. Increased sea level and the expansion of the water column floods the lowered continents. Oceans may even flood more extent of the continental regions with the uplifted old oceanic crust. Oceanic crust gradually subsidizes with the increased sea level. Plumes will diminish in intensity after the ridges were formed. Hotspots on the oceanic crust, a base for the survival of life in the Supercontinental period, submerges in the increased sea level. Continental flooding causes the erosion at the exposed interiors of the Supercontinental fragments and deposits the sediments at the shallow oceans. Chemical reactions result in a massive sedimentation of the banded iron formations and the cap carbonates (2). A new era begins in the sedimentary layers with the glacial and other deposits of the global glaciation. Massive erosion and the sedimentation reshapes the landscape on the surface of the Earth. Isostacy gradually uplifts the submerged continental regions over the sea level. Folded mountain chain may experience a massive uplift due to the imbalance of the forces with the breakup and sinking of the old slab. Gradual subsidence of the shallow ocean basins also reduces the sea level. Most of the survived species in the global ice age will face another mass extinction in the global warming and the subsequent flooding of the continental regions. Rapid overturn of the oceans disturbs the established ecosystems. Post Supercontinental period will have an explosion in the evolution of the surviving species.

#### Formation of the First Supercontinent

In the early history of the Earth, floating landmasses were freely moved on the hot molten surface of the Earth. They were freely colliding, merging and separating on the liquid surface. When the Earth started to cool, all the landmasses were coalesced together as a super landmass due to the gravitational pull and remained together while the Earth cooled further. Water vapor started to condense and formed the ocean on a thin crust around the super landmass. Earth might have been cold most of this later period. Intermittent volcanism and continuous bombardment of the comets might have repeatedly thawed the oceans. In this period either the super landmass might have quickly coalesced after breaking or might have moved around the globe without breaking apart. Further cooling of the Earth and the existence of ocean formed a thick and rigid oceanic crust. Diminishing volcanism frozen the ocean and spread the ice sheets to the super landmass by creating the first global ice age. Increased pressure within the mantle formed as a superplume under the super landmass, the first Supercontinent. Subsequent breakup of this first Supercontinent caused the exit of the global ice age and started the plate tectonics on the surface of Earth. Increase in the solar radiation shortened the later global ice ages and covered less area on the globe due to the increase in the landmass with the merger of island arcs. Ice sheet coverage may also depend upon the position of the Supercontinent on the Earth. If the Supercontinent forms around the equator it will have less coverage of ice sheets and on the poles more coverage.

### Ice Ages and the Global Warming

#### Global Warming

Speed of the Tectonic plates dynamically changes as they grow or shrink in size. The net rate of seafloor spreading depends upon the combined length of the ridges and the speed of the plates. Increase in the speed of the plates or formation of a new ridge rapidly increases the rate of seafloor spreading. Albedo and increased seafloor spreading with the thawing period of the cycle causes a global warming and melts the ice sheets. Raising sea level floods the continental regions and begins a new era with fresh sediments. Initially the increasing sea level floods more extent of the continental regions if the continent harbored ice sheets in the previous ice age. Later the rebound of the continent reduces the sea level to some extent. Gradual subsidence of the shallow oceans also reduces the sea level. Severity of the global warming depends on the speed and size of the new plates and the place of the break on the crust. Continental breakup will cause more severe global warming than the break in the oceanic crust. Open ridge and the plume spews the green house gases into the atmosphere and ejects massive amounts of magma causing extensive sedimentation of the volcanic origin. Global warming and the ice ages cause the mass extinctions depending upon the severity of the climate change. Whichever species adapts to the gradual climate change will survive and others face the extinction. Survived species continue to exist in the ice age period without much diversification. Rapid evolution takes place in the remaining species after the global warming period.

#### Sedimentary Layers

There is a strong correlation between ice ages, global warming, sea level change, mass extinctions, plate tectonics and the sedimentary layers. Reduced seafloor spreading advances the ice sheets and lowers the sea level exposing the continental shelves. Increased seafloor spreading causes a global warming and increases the sea level with the retreat of the ice sheets. Continental flooding enables extensive sedimentation and the retreat of the oceans marks a distinct boundary in the sedimentary layers. All the major boundaries in the sedimentary layers are the breakup, collision or merger of different plates. Most of the mass extinctions happened at the boundaries of these sedimentary layers. Divisions within a major  era could be the result of a change in the net rate of seafloor spreading due to either a change in the speed of a plate or a change in the ridge length without any breakup or collision or merger of the tectonic plates. These divisions could also be an unknown past activity in the crust. Along with the recording of magnetic direction in the rocks, these boundary periods should also be used in determining the past plate movements in the history of the Earth.

### Plate Tectonics

Plate tectonics starts on the Earth with the breakup of a Supercontinent and ends with the formation of another Supercontinent. This Supercontinent cycle repeats on the Earth as long as there is enough heat in the core to drive the convection in the mantle. Following is a simple description of the plate tectonics in its different phases and the resultant dynamic change in the seafloor spreading. Changes in the insolation and the rate of seafloor spreading controls the climate on the Earth. Plate Tectonics can be described in terms of the Statics (study of the rigid body mechanics) as a resultant force of all the forces acting at a subduction point (SP). SP is any point on the line of subduction at the trench.

#### Continental Slide

Reduced seafloor spreading causes an ice age and increases the pressure within the mantle. Increased pressure forms as a plume under the continental crust. Subsequent uplift and breakup of the continental crust creates a new ridge. Continental margin also breaks and forms as a trench. At this newly created trench, oceanic plate submerges because of its higher density and the continental plate slides on to the lowered oceanic plate with an inclination.

As shown in Fig. 1, only two forces will be acting at any of the subduction points. Force of the continental or overriding plate (O) acts toward the SP and the resistance of the crust or the buoyancy of the mantle (B) also acts toward the SP, in a perpendicular line to the curvature of the oceanic plate. The resultant force (R) of the O and B acts towards the ocean and slides the continental plate on the oceanic plate. This moves the SP towards the ocean and increases the dipped portion of the oceanic plate under the continental plate. This ocean ward movement of the SP also called as the trench migration (4). In this period the oceanic plate remains stationary and the continental plate rapidly slides on the oceanic crust. Increased seafloor spreading and the plume causes a global warming in the beginning of the continental rifting. Younger and soft magma within the ridge splits in half at the center of the ridge while the plate is in motion. Ridge builds both the plates equally at about half the rate of trench migration, even if one plate is stationary at the ridge. This buildup of the plate makes the ridge appear like moving away from the stationary plate with a ridge migration. Initially the dip angle (A) of the subducted slab will be very high. The weight of the slab will be less compared to the buoyancy of the mantle on the slab and as a result the slab floats on the surface of the mantle. Ocean ward movement of the SP keeps the slab flat or parallel to the surface. As the slab increases in length acquires the weight and slowly sinks into the mantle, decreasing the dip angle. Interaction between the trench migration and the slab weight keeps the slab suspended in the mantle. While the continental plate continues to slide on the oceanic plate, the dipped part of the oceanic plate increases and bends at the SP. This change in the curvature at the SP shifts the B towards the ocean. Ocean ward movement of the B acts as a break to the continental slide and finally stops the continental movement when the two forces act opposite to each other, nullifying the resultant force in a state of equilibrium. Slowing continental slide reduces the seafloor spreading and advances the ice sheets.

#### Oceanic Plate Subduction

Buoyancy on the slab decreases with the decreasing dip angle and when the dip angle decreases further, the weight of the slab exceeds the buoyancy on it and as a result exerts the force away from the SP into the mantle. Subducting or the oceanic plate also exerts the force (S) away from the SP, towards the ocean, as shown in the Fig. 2. Dip angle decreases until the W exceeds the resultant force of all other forces (S, O, B) acting at the SP. Final resultant force R acts toward the W and moves the oceanic plate into the trench from the adjoining ridge.

If still the equilibrium exists between all the forces at the maximum dip angle of the slab, subducting plate stretches at the weaker part of the crust. Plume forms under the crust and lifts the subducting plate forming an oceanic plateau. Further stretching of the oceanic plate breaks the crust and reduces the force of the oceanic plate. Equilibrium disturbs at the SP and the final resultant force, R acts toward the W and initiates the subduction by moving the new plate toward the trench. Increased seafloor spreading at the new ridge and the plume causes a global warming. While the oceanic plate is being subducted at the trench, the ridge associated with the oceanic plate also moves towards the trench. Force of the oceanic plate, S decreases as the ridge approaches the trench. W increases with the increasing length of the slab and as a result increases the rate of subduction at the trench. Pull of the oceanic plate under the continental plate exerts the force on the continental plate and lifts the continent at the SP. Subduction of the oceanic plate continues until the ridge joins with the trench creating a fault. Reduced seafloor spreading with the ridge-trench collision advances the ice sheets. All the subduction points having the same resultant force moves the oceanic plate uniformly. Difference in the resultant force causes the plate to move in different speeds. This causes the ridge to split creating different plates and moves them in different speeds towards the trench depending upon the local subduction rates.

#### Continental Collision

If there is another continent on the subducting plate, the two continents collides rising a folded mountain chain after the oceanic crust on the subducting plate was consumed. Thrusting of the continents uplifts part of the crust and forms as a folded mountain chain at the subduction zone. Weight of these mountains (M) acts towards the SP as shown in Fig3.

As the weight increases, root of the mountains sink into the mantle. Pull of the slab also enables the root to sink further deep into the mantle. As the mountains sink into the mantle, buoyancy also increases on the crust and acts opposite to M and W towards the subduction zone. As the mountains build up, buoyancy also increases and slows the subduction process. Subduction process and the mountain buildup continue until all the forces acting at the SP reaches a state of equilibrium. At this point subduction of the lithosphere stops and ceases the mountain buildup. As a result both the continental plates merges together and forms as a single plate. Depending upon the relative motion of the surrounding plates and the final motion of the new plate, any of the adjoining ridges cease to exist on the ocean floor. Reduced rate of seafloor spreading advances the ice sheets causing an ice age. Eventually slab breaks and sinks into the mantle. Due to the imbalance of the forces, mountains may get further uplifted until the equilibrium is reached between the weight of the mountains and the buoyancy of the mantle. Ridges on the ocean floor continuously rearranges in different directions while the continents were heading towards the Supercontinent formation. When all the continents collide to form the Supercontinent, plates merge one after the other with the central plate. Magma within the ridges seals the boundaries and forms as a single plate causing the tectonic pause. Drastic reduction in the seafloor spreading advances the ice sheets and causes a global glaciation or snowball Earth event.

Plate Tectonics creates a controlled environment for the dissipation of heat within the Earth. For the formation and survival of Plate Tectonics on a planet, it needs to have water or a cooling agent on its surface to cool and solidify the out coming magma at the ridges and huge lighter continental crust to get split into different plates. It also needs to have a  convecting mantle to enable the subducted slab to sink through it. Mantle also drives the Supercontinent cycle by splitting the Supercontinental crust into different plates every time it forms with the merger of all the plates.

### Supercontinents and the Snowball Earth Events

Snowball Earth events can be recognized by the deposits of the anoxic ocean. Ice covered ocean cuts off the contact between the ocean and the atmosphere. As a result, all the ferrous and other elements emanating from the plumes and the ceasing ridges accumulate in the oceans. Global warming resulted in the Supercontinental breakup, reinitiates the contact between the ocean and the atmosphere. Chemical reactions between the ocean and atmosphere results in a massive deposit of the banded iron formations, cap carbonates and other similar deposits (2). Most of these deposits were formed in extensive shallow oceans of the continental fragments formed with the breakup of Supercontinents. Apart from the known two snowball Earth events, all other occurrences of these deposits fall under the apparent Supercontinent cycle. If the Supercontinent cycle (5) happens after every 425 million years (My) and the last Supercontinent broke apart around 250 million years ago (Ma) at the beginning of the Mesozoic era, the sequence of the previous Supercontinental breakup periods falls around 250, 675, 1100, 1525, 1950, 2375 and 2800 Ma. Extensive formation of folded mountain chains preceded almost every period in the sequence. Occurrence of anoxic ocean deposits in all of these Supercontinental periods is a strong indication of global glaciations in these periods. Glacial deposits are just one of the sediments of the snowball Earth event. Absence of these deposits should not prevent us from studying these periods with respect to the snowball Earth scenario.

First Supercontinent: Sudden increase in 87Sr/86Sr ratio of marine carbonates around 2700 Ma may be the result of the initiation of contact between the continents and the oceans on the Earth. Banded iron formations (6,7) also indicate the presence of an anoxic ocean with a global ice age before this period. Because of the above reasons and more significantly this period falls under the Supercontinent cycle, there is a strong possibility that a Supercontinent existed around 2800 Ma. Plate Tectonics on the Earth might have started with the breakup of this first Supercontinent. Even the trace of earliest terrestrial ecosystems was found after this event (8). This proves that each Supercontinent harbored some kind of life forms and later they might have faced extinction in the formation and breakup of the next Supercontinent.

Second Supercontinent: Paleoproterozoic Snowball Earth event (9) around 2400 Ma was formed on an Archaean Supercontinent. Global glaciation was preceded by a massive formation of the folded mountain chains. Banded iron formations and the cap carbonates were deposited on the shallow oceans of the continental fragments.

Third Supercontinent: An extensive deposit of the banded iron formations and other similar deposits around 1900 Ma (6) is a clear indication of anoxic ocean formed by a global glaciation. A possible Supercontinent formation around this period is also a strong indication of snowball Earth event around this period.

Fourth Supercontinent: Apparent Supercontinent formation and a peak in the banded iron formations around 1500 Ma (6) may be a result of global glaciation in this period.

Fifth Supercontinent: There were some observations about the formation of Rhodinia around 1100 Ma. It means the previous Supercontinent existed at least 400 My before this period and that falls around 1500 Ma. Rhodinia started to breakup around 700 Ma coinciding with the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth event. A vast period of 800 My for the Supercontinent cycle is not conceivable with the present understanding of the plate tectonics. Existence of banded iron formations (6) and a possible Supercontinent formation around 1100 Ma is a strong indication for the existence of another Supercontinent in this period other than the Rhodinia.

Sixth Supercontinent: Rhodinia was the sixth Supercontinent. Neoproterozoic global glaciation (10) started around 800 Ma on the Rhodinia Supercontinent and ended with the breakup of the Supercontinent around 700 Ma. The possibility of Rhodinia continuing from 1100 to 700 Ma without breaking apart is meager because Supercontinent can’t survive such a lengthy period of 400 My. A Supercontinent can’t sustain for longer period after it forms completely and also a maximum of 100 My is possible between the formation and breakup of the Supercontinent. Timing and the duration of the global ice age on Rhodinia signifies the formation of the Supercontinent around 800 Ma.  On these grounds it is possible that the Rhodinia formed around 800 Ma and the observed Supercontinent formation around 1100 Ma should be a different Supercontinent. Immediate amalgamation of the continents as the Gondwanaland (11) after the breakup of the Rhodinia also caused a global glaciation with less severity.

Seventh Supercontinent: Pangaea was the seventh Supercontinent. Ice age on the Gondwanaland when it was part of Pangaea around 270 Ma was the recent Supercontinental global ice age (12,13). Breakup of the Pangaea around 250 Ma thawed the environment with a global warming and started the Mesozoic era. Permian extinction started with the global ice age and culminated with the global warming of Supercontinental breakup.

Eighth Supercontinent: Next Supercontinent forms in approximately another 175 My from now and the breakup of that Supercontinent will cause another mass extinction on the Earth of the type and scale of Permian extinction.

### Geochronology

Geochronology or Stratigraphy is the true history of plate tectonics on the Earth. Each boundary is a result of breakup or merger of the tectonic plates. It will be more meaningful if we name the eras with the concerned event in the crust of the Earth. A major era in the history of the Earth starts with the breakup of a Supercontinent and ends with the formation of another Supercontinent. Rhodinian era can be defined from the breakup of the Rhodinia to the formation of the Pangaea. This includes the present late Neoproterozoic and whole of the Paleozoic era until the end of the Permian period. Pangaean era starts with the Mesozoic era and continues through the present until the formation of the next Supercontinent. Breakup or merger of plates forms the smaller boundaries in between the two Supercontinental periods. In many cases ice ages were followed by hothouse environments. Boundaries tend to form with the regression of the ocean in the glacial maximum period. Subsequent transgression of the ocean in the hothouse environment begins another layer on the boundary. Sedimentary layers forms much like the tree ring development between the summer and winter periods of the year. Sedimentary layer begins with the global warming and ends with the ice age. The gap between the ice age and the next global warming is the boundary. Therefore the boundary may not be the exact period of the crust activity. Following is the comparison between the boundaries and the plate movements in the past from the breakup of the Pangaea to the present.

• Permian and Triassic boundary was formed around 250 Ma with the breakup of Pangaea. Permian mass extinction was started with the global glaciation and culminated with the global warming caused by the breakup of the Supercontinent. Siberian eruptions might be the result of a superplume that broke the Supercontinent.
• Triassic and Jurassic boundary around 205 Ma was the result of the breakup of North America and Europe from the rest of the Supercontinent. Another mass extinction was also observed in this period. Icehouse and hothouse scenario observed in this period is the result of the reduced seafloor spreading and the subsequent eruption of the superplume, which laid the extensive Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP).
• Jurassic and Cretaceous boundary around 135 Ma might have formed with the breakup of Australia form the Antarctica.
• The K-T, Cretaceous and Tertiary boundary around 65 Ma was formed when India separated from the Africa. Deccan traps were formed in this period with the upwelling of the Reunion plume. The subsequent global warming caused another mass extinction and culminated the extinction of the dinosaurs.
• Paleocene and Eocene boundary was formed around 57 Ma with the breakup of European plate from the North American plate. North Atlantic Magmatic Province was formed over the Iceland plume in this period.
• Tertiary and Quaternary boundary formed around 2 Ma coincides with the collision of Indian plate with the Eurasian plate. Reduced seafloor spreading with the uplift of the Himalayas caused the subsequent ice age.

Breakup of the South America around 120 Ma over the Walvis hotspot and the breakup of Antarctica around 170 Ma and the related Karoo-Ferrar flood basalt volcanism can also be traced in the sedimentary layers. Apart from the above mentioned events, ridge-trench collision, cessation of ridge activity and the rifting of the oceanic crust also leaves a distinct mark in the sedimentary layers. Discrepancy between my observation and the data, if any exists, can be resolved with further exploration of the sedimentary layers and the paleomagnetism. Paleomagnetism only provides the latitudinal position of the plates and this may generate a false interpretation of the plate movements if they move horizontally to the equator. By combining the paleomagnetism and geochronology together in determining the plate movements we may get more precise history of plate tectonics. The discrepancy about the formation of Rhodinia may also be resolved with this new direction.

### Global Deluge

The story of global deluge is part of almost every ancient culture. The description of the events appeared to be analogous with the breakup of the Supercontinental crust. Global deluge depicted in the ancient cultures is about the melting water of the global ice age and the subsequent flooding of the continental regions after the breakup of the Supercontinent. Loss of life is the mass extinction in the global warming caused by the breakup of the Supercontinent. Deep fountains (14) might be the superplumes formed under the Supercontinental crust. All the survived species were depicted as saved in the ark. More over the names attributed to the person who saved the species, phonetically resembles very closely in many cultures. Noah (Genesis) and Manu (Manusmrithi) are just two identities among the many references. The loss of life in the global deluge is a clear indication to the normal life in the world before the deluge. Ancient Indian Vedic scriptures depicted the global deluge as occurring seven times in the history of the Earth. They have even provided the names of seven different individuals who started the new life after each global deluge. According to the Manusmrithi, the first one is Swayambhuva Manu before him there was no life on the Earth. The other six are Svarokisha, Auttami, Tamasa, Raivata, Kakshusha and Vaivaswat each with the last name as Manu.

Following is the duration of Manvantara cycle, a period between two consecutive Manus, as described in the ancient Indian Vedic texts (15,16).

One Manu period   = 1 kritha-yuga period of deluge + 71 chatur-yugas
One chatur-yuga    = 1 kritha-yuga + 1 thretha-yuga + 1 dwapara-yuga + 1 kali-yuga
= 1,728,000 + 1,296,000 + 864,000 + 432,000-years
= 4,320,000-years.

Therefore, One Manu period

= 1,728,000 + 71 x 4,320,000-years
= 308,448,000-years.

(Note that all the divisions in the chatur-yuga are in perfect ratio of 4:3:2:1. Therefore one chatur-yuga is ten times of the kali-yuga period.)

Each Manu period starts with a global deluge of 1,728,000 years and later lasts for another 306,720,000 years with normal life, totaling a period of 308,448,000 years for a single Manu period. Of these six Manu periods have been elapsed and we are in the 7th Manu period of which 27 chatur-yugas have been elapsed and the current running is 28th chatur-yuga. Within this chatur-yuga kritha, thretha and dwapara-yugas have been elapsed and we are currently in the kali-yuga. From the descriptions in many of the ancient Indian texts it has been deduced that the present kali-yuga had started on the year of 3102 BC. In India, the traditional calendars prepared on these ancient calculations still incrementing this kali-yuga period by one after every Yugaadi, a traditional New Year denoting the beginning of time or the start of the movement of stars.

Therefore the beginning of time until 2000 AD is –

= 6 Manu periods + 1 kritha-yuga period of deluge + 27 chatur-yugas
+ 1 kritha-yuga + 1 thretha-yuga + 1 dwapara-yuga + 5101 years of kali-yuga
= 6 x 308,448,000 + 1,728,000 + 27 x 432,000
+ 1,728,000 + 1,296,000 + 864,000 + 5102 years
= 1,974,677,102 years.

Ancient Indians gave a whopping period of 2 billion years as the present age of the Earth. And they kept incrementing this period every year from ancient times through the present and gave a maximum life span of 4 billion years for the Earth. According to the ancient texts, time started with the movement of the planets. They also mentioned that this event also coincided with the first global deluge on the Earth. Before this time it was dark all over the solar system. It means there was no perception of day and night before this period. Even though a big difference of 117 My exists between the Supercontinent cycle of 425 My and the Manvantara Cycle of approximately 308 My, there is no doubt that they both repeated six complete cycles and we are in the middle of the seventh cycle. Most of the ancient cultures also believe in the past six Earths and the present as the seventh Earth.

From the formation around 4500 Ma until 2800 Ma Earth transformed from the liquid state to the solid state and later differentiated into layers. This period of the Earth’s history also witnessed the heavy bombardment of comets. We don’t even find the trace of plate tectonics in this period. More over the earliest terrestrial ecosystems were also traced after 2800 Ma. On these grounds the beginning of the first manvantara, the first Earth and the beginning of time can be identified with the breakup of the first Supercontinent around 2700-2800 Ma and the subsequent start of plate tectonics on Earth. The past six Manvantara cycles and the past six Earths are the past six Supercontinent cycles and the present Manvantara or the seventh Earth started with the breakup of the Pangaea around 250 Ma. Extensive erosion and the sedimentation that follows the Supercontinental breakup reshapes the landscape and appears like a new Earth. The perception of day and night happens with the rotation of the Earth in the existence of a luminous sun. Radioactive elements begin to decay as soon as they came to existence. Our modern perception of time started with the decay of the radioactive elements in the planetesimals, even before the sun and planets came to existence. Ancient civilizations perceived the time with the orderly movement of the planets around the glowing sun and also this event coincided with the breakup of the first Supercontinent.

Ancient Indian texts not only provided a complete history of the Earth but also described the future. According to these ancient texts, the total life span of the Earth is about fourteen Manvantara cycle. That means at least another eight Supercontinents forms on the Earth before the final deluge. After the final Manu period, there will be another final deluge on the Earth. That gives fifteen deluges or Supercontinent formations and fourteen complete cycles. According to the ancient calculation that yields in a total life span of 4,320,000,000 years.

Life span of the Earth = 14 Manvantara cycles + 1 final global deluge
= 14 x 308,448,000 + 1,728,000-years
= 4,320,000,000-years

According to the present calculations this period will be about 5950 My ( 14  x  425 ). About 2900 My elapsed from the breakup of the first Supercontinent and the Earth will be hospitable about the same period of time in the future. Interestingly the life span of the Earth also equals to 1000 chatur-yugas. This period has been described as the creation and the same amount of period from the collapse of the solar system to the orderly movement of another solar system, including its formation has been described as the destruction. Together the creation and the destruction, a period of 8,640,000,000-years (according to the present calculations this period will be 5950 + 5950 =    11,900 My = 12 Ga) has been repeating from unknown past.

### Conclusion

Widespread occurrence of the glacial deposits on different continents of the former Gondwanaland was one of the reasons behind the origination of the theory of continental drift (17). In reality the global glaciation itself formed when all the continents collided to form the Supercontinent. Snowball Earth event is a natural result of the plate tectonics and in fact is part of the Supercontinent cycle. This hypothesis proposes a Supercontinental tectonic pause and creates a unified view of this dynamic planet. Hypothesis combines the seafloor spreading with the solar radiation in explaining the global phenomena like the extensive global glaciation, global warming, sea level change, mass extinctions and the formation of sedimentary layers. This demonstrates the fact that all the physical phenomena on the Earth works as a system. This hypothesis even unified the ancient thoughts with science.

Apart from unifying the physical phenomena, this hypothesis also opens new channels for further exploration. This hypothesis emphasizes the need to explore deep into many of the present concepts in modern science. Following are some of the other concepts that may need a critical review and further exploration in view of these new findings.

#### Continuity of Plate Tectonics

Rate of seafloor spreading depends on the speed and number of tectonic plates. Supercontinental formation is a collision and merger of different plates. Island arcs also appear to merge with the Supercontinent before its breakup, ceasing the peripheral subduction. Merging of the old plates and the creation of new plates in the Supercontinental period is a clear indication of discontinuity in the plate tectonics. Even if any of the peripheral subduction continues; Supercontinental period will have minimum rate of seafloor spreading, far lower than the present rate due to the less number of tectonic plates. In any case, either the tectonic pause or minimum rate of seafloor spreading advances the ice sheets towards the equator causing a global glaciation. Possibility of tectonic pause or the minimum rate of seafloor spreading in the Supercontinental period is a clear indication of drastic changes in the rate of seafloor spreading. In this scenario the assumption of continuity in plate tectonics from its initial beginning in the early history of the earth appears to be falsified.

#### Global Warming

Every body agrees to the fact of increasing sea level but there is no consensus on the cause of the global warming. Continuity in plate tectonics created a view that the seafloor spreading will be more or less same at any point of time. Due to this assumption seafloor spreading was excluded as a possible cause for the global warming. In view of this hypothesis the present observations of the global warming should be analyzed in respect to the rate of sea floor spreading.

#### Global Deluge and the Seven Earths

Ancient descriptions about the global deluge might have changed through the time from their original form due to repeated copying or rewriting of these texts. Originally these texts might have represented the ancient thoughts accumulated through generations of observation of the nature. We need to explore deep into these texts with a scientific view. All the ancient stories about the global deluge need to be studied in conjunction with the Supercontinent formation, global glaciation, tectonic pause, superplume, Supercontinent breakup, global warming, mass extinction and the subsequent flooding of the continental regions. Even though there were seven global deluges, only the recent global deluge occurred with the breakup of Pangaea was the most prevalent event among the ancient cultures.

Ancient Hebrew texts described the seven Earths, each separated by a salty ocean and then a fresh ocean. The salty ocean was the water around the Supercontinent and the fresh ocean was the water from the melting ice sheets after the breakup of the Supercontinent. Environment on the first Earth was dark; it could be possible that the first Supercontinental period received very little radiation from the sun. Stars and constellations were appeared brighter and bigger on the second Earth. It is possible that the universe might have been closer around 2400 Ma. Expansion of the universe distanced the stars away from each other. Sixth Earth was dry and its period was from the breakup of Rhodinia to the formation of the Pangaea. Gondwanaland formed in the early period of this era and its vast expanse might have had extensive dry land in the interior of the continent. Seventh Earth was started with the breakup of the Pangaea and continuing through the present.

#### Evolution and the Ancestry of the Human Race

The question here is how the ancient civilization in the remote past was so advanced in determining the cyclic nature of the Earth. To derive such an extensive system of cycles, it requires lot of observation and collection of data for generations. Later the data needs to be analyzed to arrive at a common principle. Every ancient author mentioned numerous earlier references and nobody claimed that the cycle was their own discovery. Present concepts in the history and evolutionary biology claims that humans evolved through the time and attained the present position. In this case how the present science explain the advanced state of human being in the remote past? How many years it would have been taken to arrive at that advanced state? If the humans acquired the knowledge about the global deluge then why they need to fear about it and weave a story of Ark to save the species from the deluge? If the knowledge was not acquired then the human race indeed might have witnessed the global flood. In that case, when the human race first started on the Earth?

#### Beginning of Time

Rotation of the planet around its axis gives the perception of day and night. And the revolution of the planet around the sun starts the beginning of a year. The perception of time is just limited to the solar system. Our perception of time in this solar system might have started with the glow of the Sun and the movement of the planets. Radioactive elements begin to decay as soon as they form at the beginning of the solar system. It would have been taken much longer period from the formation of these early elements to the orderly movement of the planets around the glowing sun. Ancient Indian texts certainly didn’t include the time taken for the formation of the Earth. This ancient Indian event of beginning of time coincides with the breakup of the first Supercontinent. Changes in the rotation and revolution might have also played a role along with the internal pressure in breaking the crust. According to the modern calculations, the sun is increasing it’s radiation by 1% of the present radiation in every 100 My. In the 4500 My history of the solar system, the total change accounts for only 45% of the solar radiation. In this case the sun should have turned on with at least 55% of the present radiation. If the sun gradually attained the present radiation, then some significant change might have happened in the luminosity of the sun around the time of the breakup of the first Supercontinent and that might have resulted in the perception of time within the solar system.

### References and Notes

1. Note: In the 1920s, Milutin Milankovitch revised an earlier idea of variation in the eccentricity of Earth’s orbit as a cause for the ice age cycle and the same is known as the Milankovitch cycles.
2. Hoffman P. F., Schrag D. P., Snowball Earth, Scientific American, 282, 1 (January 2000), p68-75.
Note: In 1964, W. B. Harland proposed the concept of global glaciation. Later in 1992, J. L. Kirschvink extended the concept and termed it as a snowball Earth event.
3. White R. S., McKenzie D. P., Volcanism at Rifts, Scientific American, 261, 1 (July 1989), p62-71.
4. Zhong S., Gurnis M., Dynamic interaction between tectonic plates, subducting slabs and the mantle, Earth Interactions, 1, 1-003. [Available online at http://EarthInteractions.org/].
5. Nance R. D., Worsley T. R., Moody J. B., The Supercontinent Cycle, Scientific American, 259, 1 (July 1988), p72-79.
Note: In the 1970s, J. Tuzo Wilson proposed that the continents disperse and then reassemble with the periodic opening and closing of the oceans after every 400-500 My. Later research placed the periodicity of the Supercontinent or Wilson cycle around 425 My.
6. Condie K. C., Des Marais D. J., Abbott D., Geologic evidence for a mantle superplume event at 1.9 Ga, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 1, 2000GC000095. [Available online at http://146.201.254.53/%5D.
Note: In the initial version of the hypothesis and in the newsgroup discussion, I have predicted three more global ice ages to be around 1100, 1525 and 1950 Ma. This paper supports my prediction and provides the data for the Supercontinent formed around 1900 Ma. This paper also provides the data for the other two events but further exploration may isolate these events more clearly.
7. Zimmer C., Ancient Continent opens Window on the Early Earth, Science, 286, p2254-2256.
8. Watanabe Yumiko, Jacques E. J., Martini Hiroshi Ohmoto, Geochemical evidence for terrestrial ecosystems 2.6 billion years ago, Nature, 408, p574-578.
9. Evans D. A., Beukes N. J., Kirschvink J. L., Low-latitude glaciation in the Paleoproterozoic, Nature, 386, p262-266.
10. Hoffman P. F., Kaufman A. J., Halverson G. P., Schrag D. P., A Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth, Science, 281, p1342-1346.
11. Hoffman P. F., Did the Breakout of Laurentia Turn Gondwanaland Inside-Out?, Science, 252, p1409-1412.
12. Knoll A. H., Bambach R. K., Canfield D. E., Grotzinger J. P., Comparative Earth History and late Permian Mass Extinction, Science, 273, p452-457.
13. Erwin D. H., The Mother of Mass Extinctions, Scientific American, 275, 1 (July 1996), p72-78.
14. Genesis (7:11)
15. Manusmrithi (1:64-80)
16. Surya Sidhantha (1:11-23)
17. Note: In 1915, Alfred L. Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift on the basis of the matching continental shelves and the occurrence of widespread glaciation on different continents. Wegener assumed that the glaciation occurred when all the continents were together.

Note: In most cases I have just used the data from the above references and the interpretation of that data is of my own opinion.

Note: This is a modified version of my hypothesis first published on my home page on 1st August, 2000. I have modified my hypothesis by adding additional proof and incorporated the Milankovitch cycles for the initiation of ice ages. And also provided an analogy between my hypothesis and the global deluge of the ancient cultures. Check the home page for the summary of the earlier discussion and other relevant pages of my hypothesis.

Categories: Physics

## Earth History from the Ancient Texts and It’s Relevance to the Science

Earth History from the Ancient Texts and
It’s Relevance to the Science

KARUNAKAR MARASAKATLA
Date: 18th August, 2002

### Summary

Ancient descriptions of beginning of the Earth and the global deluge are relevant to the Earth history. Beginning of the Earth or beginning of the time appears to be the beginning of the Supercontinent cycle on the surface of the Earth around 2800 million years ago. Since then, six Supercontinent cycles were completed on the surface of the Earth and the present is the seventh cycle. Global deluge appears to be the description of the rise in sea level occurred with the breakup of each Supercontinent. Therefore global deluge occurs in the beginning of every Supercontinent cycle. Descriptions of the Manvantara cycles, seven Earths and seven Karshvars are similar to the Supercontinent cycles.

### Introduction

Ancient texts of many cultures extensively described about the Earth and the nature. Among them the most prominent and common description was the global deluge. It was mentioned that the global deluge covered all the land mass of the Earth. The present view of the global deluge is that it is a myth. It has been widely assumed that these stories have no relevance to the past history of the Earth. The description of the global deluge is widespread among many ancient cultures on different continents. These ancient beliefs were stamped as myths when the subject of Earth itself was in the conceptual phase. If we analyze these ancient stories in view of the current developments in Earth science, we find extraordinary significance of these stories to the Earth history; far away from the so called myths. It appears that these ancient writings were depicting the real history of the Earth. The views of ancient cultures about the Earth and the global deluge are similar to the Supercontinent cycle (1).

### Supercontinent Cycle

Continents were not always separated by oceans on the Earth. Around 270 million years ago (Ma), all the continents were together as a single landmass or Supercontinent called Pangaea. Later this Supercontinent was broken into separate continents and moved apart on the surface of the Earth as they are today. In the future, these continents will again join together to form another Supercontinent. The period from the breakup of one Supercontinent to the breakup of another Supercontinent is one Supercontinent cycle and the phenomenon is called as Plate tectonics.

According to the present concepts, the proto-type of the Earth was formed around 4500 Ma and the life emerged in the oceans after few hundred million years. Even though life existed on Earth from 3800 Ma, trace of terrestrial ecosystems was found only from 2600 Ma. Terrestrial ecosystems could be the result of initiation of Plate tectonics on the planet around 2800 Ma (2) with the breakup of the first Supercontinent. Plate Tectonics can be attributed to the existence of warm habitable environment on the planet. Without the Plate tectonics it will be frigid all around the planet. In the whole history of the Earth, a total of seven Supercontinents were formed since 2800 Ma and each was separated by a period of about 425 million years (My). The past Supercontinent breakup periods falls around 2800, 2375, 1950, 1525, 1100, 675 and 250 Ma (1). Pangaea, the recent seventh Supercontinent was broken into present continents around 250 Ma.

Supercontinental period is very significant part in the Earth history. Even though there were many ice ages in the past, ice ages formed with the Supercontinental formation were extensive and global in nature. Breakup of the Supercontinent causes a severe global warming and melts the ice sheets. Melting ice sheets and the newly formed shallow ocean basins increases the sea level and floods the continental regions. Global warming and the continental flooding cause a major mass extinction. The end Permian mass extinction was the result of the breakup of recent Supercontinent, Pangaea.

There are many similarities between the Supercontinent cycle and the stories of the global deluge from the ancient cultures (1). In the later part of this article, these issues will be explored in detail. Even though the story of the global deluge is part of almost every ancient culture, this article explores only the views described in the ancient texts of Vedic, Hebrew and Zoroastrian cultures.

### Manvantara Cycles from the Ancient Vedic Texts

Ancient Indian Vedic texts described the Earth history in terms of Manvantara cycles. There were a total of six complete Manvantara cycles in the history of the Earth and the present is the seventh cycle (3, 4). Each of the cycles begins with a global deluge on the surface of the Earth. In each of the global deluge, Manu saves the species on the Earth in an Ark. There were no species on the Earth before the first deluge therefore the first Manu was described as the first human being. Manvantara is the period between two consecutive Manus and lasts for approximately 308 My. The past six Manus were Swayambhuva Manu, Svarokisha Manu, Auttami Manu, Tamasa Manu, Raivata Manu and Kakshusha Manu. The present Manvantara began with the Vaivaswatha Manu.

According to these texts the age of the Earth turns out to be around 2 billion years (1). Even though there is a difference in time between Manvantara and the Supercontinent cycle, the description appears to be similar to the Supercontinent cycle. More over the Earth was described as revolving around the galactic center within the Manvantara. In fact the same revolution appears to be the cause of Supercontinent cycle or Plate tectonics on the Earth (2). These ancient texts also mentioned that there would be another seven Manvantara cycles apart from the current one, totaling fourteen of them as the total period of the habitable Earth. Appropriate time period for the seven Supercontinent cycles is another 3 billion years and this period is in accordance with the present standards of the Earth and planetary sciences for the hospitable environment to continue on the Earth before the red giant phase of the Sun.

In these ancient texts it was also mentioned that the period of fourteen Manvantara cycles is a day of Brahma. In this period life exists on the planet. Equal amount of time was described as the night of the Brahma. Life perishes and darkness abounds in this period. A cycle of day and night of the Brahma repeats in the galaxy. These texts even described the galactic scale colonies and the position of our own Earth among them.

### Seven Earths from the Ancient Hebrew Texts

Ancient Hebrew texts described about the past six Earths and the present seventh Earth. Each of these Earths was separated by a salty ocean and then a fresh ocean from other Earths. Ancient texts even provided the names for the seven Earths from the lowest as the Erez, Adamah, Arka, Ge, Neshiah, Ziah and Tebel (5). Salinity of the ocean increases from the breakup of the Supercontinent to the formation of another Supercontinent. Breakup of the Supercontinent removes the salt from the ocean in the form of evaporites. As a result the ocean transforms into a fresh water reservoir. As the plates move towards the formation of another Supercontinent, salinity increases in the oceans. In other words, global glaciation and saline oceans dominates the Supercontinental period. Evaporites and the melting of the ice sheets fill the oceans with fresh water after the breakup of the Supercontinent.

It has been described that the Adam was descended from the Eden onto the first Earth when the Earth was formed in the beginning. Later he moved onto the other Earths by crossing the ocean between them. Adam was described as the first human being on the Earth. Global deluge of the Noah’s period was described as happened at the end of the sixth Earth and in the beginning of the Seventh Earth. It means the global deluge occurred at the end of the sixth Earth is the same as the salty and fresh oceans which separated each of the previous Earths. As the Noah saved the species in his Ark in the recent global deluge, Adam also can be described as the protector of the species in the previous Earths. Supercontinental breakup and the subsequent extensive flooding of the continental regions cause extensive erosion and sedimentation on the flooded regions of the continents. This newly reshaped landscape was later described as the new Earth in these ancient texts. From these descriptions it appears that each Earth is a single Supercontinent cycle. Even though there were many occurrences of global deluge, emphasis was given to the recent event.

The progressive nature of life can be observed in the environments of each of the previous Earths. Environment on the Erez, the first Earth was dark; it could be possible that the first Supercontinental period received very little radiation from the young Sun or the dense atmosphere might have blocked most of the radiation. Second Earth, the Adamah, where the light reflected from its own sky and the stars and constellations were bigger in size. Size of the galaxy might have been smaller in that period. Stars would appear bigger in size in the compact galaxy. Expanding galaxy might have distanced the stellar objects away from each other. The Arka, third Earth, received some light from the Sun. Increasing brightness of the Sun and the thinner atmosphere might have illuminated the surface of the Earth. The Ziah, sixth Earth was described as a dry land without much water resources. This period is from the breakup of Rhodinia to the formation of the Pangaea. Gondwanaland formed in the early period of this era and its vast expanse might have had extensive dry land in the interior of the continent. The Tebel, seventh Earth started with the breakup of the Supercontinent, Pangaea. Other descriptions like the emergence of plant life and the appearance of humans in the previous Earths might also be valuable in further exploration of the past Supercontinental environments.

### Seven Karshvars from the Ancient Zoroastrian Texts

Ancient Zoroastrian texts described the Karshvars as concentric circles one above the other (6). They described the present Karshvar – Hvaniratha as the seventh and the largest one, above all the previous Karshvars. The other six Karshvars are: Arezahi, Savahi, Fradadhafshu, Vidadhafshu, Vourubaresti, Vourugaresti (7). According to these texts, Hvaniratha is the only Karshvar inhabited by the men. An ocean separated each Karshvar from another. These Karshvars can be compared with the Supercontinent cycles. Global flooding of the continental regions after the breakup of the Supercontinent is the ocean between each of the Karshvars. Sedimentary layers of each Supercontinent cycle forms one above the previous one and in general these layers can be described as the concentric circles.

### The Beginning

It is clearly evident that the ancient civilizations considered the breakup of the first Supercontinent around 2800 Ma as the beginning of time. This period was considered as the beginning of the perception of day and night on the Earth. Ancient Vedic texts also mentioned that the stars started moving across the sky in this period. Ancient perception of the beginning is the orderly movement of the celestial objects; not the existence of the objects themselves. Modern perception of time started with the decay of the radioactive elements in the planetesimals, a proto-type of the present planets, around 4500 Ma. Both the perceptions are valid in this scenario, but the period around 2800 Ma is definitely more significant than the period of the Earth around 4500 Ma. Planet has grown bigger in size until 2800 Ma, but remained same after that period. Warm environment, terrestrial ecosystems and beginning of Plate tectonics marks this period as a significant event in the Earth’s history.

Apart from the Vedic, Hebrew and Zoroastrian descriptions of the global deluge, many other ancient cultures also believe in the event. Some of them refer to the latest event happened with the breakup of the Pangaea and others probably refer to the breakup of the first Supercontinent around 2800 million years ago. If the story deals with the beginning of time and the formation of the Earth, then it is definitely the description of the first Supercontinental period. If the story is about saving the people in an Ark from the deluge means it is about the recent Supercontinental breakup period. In most cases, the ancient cultures mixed the beginning of time with the latest flood story and didn’t provide much detail about the intermediate global deluges. Some of the beliefs in the ancient cultures merely mentions about a global deluge. In any case, the knowledge of global deluge is universal among many cultures.

### Astonishing Achievement of the Ancient Cultures

It is surprising to see the description of the Earth as far back as 2800 Ma in the writings of the Bronze Age civilizations. The description of galactic revolution as the cause of the global deluge is itself an astonishing achievement. From these descriptions it can be determined that the ancient civilizations once achieved and possessed extensive knowledge of the nature and the Earth. Subsequently these concepts and events turned into legends through the millennia. Common origin or borrowing from another culture explains the abundance of these stories in many ancient cultures. The similarities between the global deluge and the Supercontinental period should not be studied in reference to the abundance of the story; it should be studied in the context of how and when the ancient cultures first realized these cyclic events happening in the past.

Criticism to the global deluge commonly concentrates on the possibilities of building the Ark, ancestry of the human race, rapid or gradual increase in the sea level and the extent of the continental flooding. In some cases the global deluge was even compared with the flooding of a local river or lake. It is known that the breakup of each Supercontinental period witnessed a higher sea level rise than in any other period. Each of the known episodes of Supercontinental breakup period witnessed a major mass extinction. The questions about the ancestry of the human race, extent of continental flooding and about the Ark are immaterial to accept the broader vision of the ancient cultures about this global deluge. Manvantara cycles, seven Earths and the seven Karshvars are the representation of the Supercontinent cycles on the surface of the Earth. Each of the seven Manus, Adam, Noah and the Ark are the symbol of life and its struggle through the Supercontinent cycles.

Supporters of the ancient texts criticized the science because it opposed the ancient texts. Science termed these texts as baseless. Even in this conflict most people continuously believed in what was believed through the generations. At the end the same Science clearly proved beyond any doubt that these ancient texts were nothing but Science itself.

### Evolution and the Ancestry of the Human Race

Even though the fundamental concept of the evolution is widely accepted, concepts about the origin and evolution of the human intelligence do’t appear to be convincing. Science ignored the ancient thoughts on the basis of present concepts in the evolutionary biology. Theory of evolution proclaims that the humans evolved through the times. It was generally assumed that the human beings were intellectually developed from the Stone Age through the Bronze Age till to the present Iron Age. In this scenario, all the ancient concepts generally get ignored and eventually turn into mere myths.

In view of this hypothesis, the ancient civilizations appear to be scientifically more advanced than commonly assumed. If the ancient civilizations acquired the knowledge through observation and study of the nature, then we must assume that they were intellectually advanced as early as the Bronze Age. Relating the galactic cycles with the global deluge on the Earth requires the knowledge of celestial dynamics as well as Earth’s internal dynamics. This is definitely a result of an advanced state of thinking. If the humans acquired the knowledge through experience then the ancestry of the human race has to go back to the period of first Supercontinental period. In any case, the concepts of human evolution and the intellectual development of the human race appear to be in conflict with each other.

### Misunderstanding of the Ancient Texts

Earliest translations of the Vedic texts underestimated the extent of the subject they were dealing with. All the huge numbers described in the texts for the age of the Earth were thrown away because they were in conflict with the prevailing estimate of 6000 years for the age of the Earth at that time. Because the translations were termed these concepts as myth, they couldn’t able to seep into the scientific thought at that time and continuously ignored even in this period.

In some interpretations of the ancient Hebrew texts, Adam was described as a plural identity and sometimes even as a symbol of humanity. In these ancient texts, it was described that the Adam was also crossed the ocean between the sixth and the seventh Earths. Noah, a descendant of the Adam, also crossed the same ocean in his Ark with all other species but Adam was not described as part of the Ark. This means Adam probably represents the identity of the humanity and its survival in the global deluge. In many cases, the ancient texts describe only the prominent individuals of a clan. Sometimes these texts describe these individuals in a sequence even though they were separated by many generations. A period of 6000 years for the age of the Earth derived from the genealogies was not in the spirit of these ancient texts.

Scientific critics continuously termed these ancient thoughts as baseless. In most cases the process of scientific criticism is associated with the selection of the weakest point of the opposite view and falsifying the same. With the falsification of single event the whole subject was termed as false and all the concepts were later ignored. In reality, the ideas ignored were difficult to comprehend with the Science. Most common academic reference to the global deluge described in the Vedic texts is the story of the Manu and the fish. We wouldn’t find any discussion about either the two billion years for the age of the Earth or the cyclic occurrences of the global deluge.

Gradual progress of the Science from the past few centuries is also another reason for misunderstanding the ancient texts. Continental drift theory was not even born when the Vedic texts were first translated. In the 1960s, Earth science was developed into Plate tectonics and later extended the concept into the Supercontinent cycle. Galactic revolution and the cyclic occurrence of the global deluge have no meaning in the Earth Science until the concept of Supercontinent cycle was evolved. Science gradually progressed and now has all the basic elements to understand these ancient concepts.

### Future of the Science

If this hypothesis and the similarities to the global deluge are true then the other concepts in those texts might also have some relevance to the nature. We need to shed the notion of myth about these ancient stories and start realizing the significance of the concepts to the Science. As we improve our understanding of the nature, we may be getting closure to the concepts described in these ancient texts. It is time to incorporate these time tested notions into the Science. These ancient concepts will open new avenues for the exploration of the nature and provides a common goal and direction for the scattered scientific thought. The concepts like the development of human intelligence, relevance of the Vedic cyclic universe to the Big Bang world, significance of the Earth in the galactic community are needs to be explored. Science no longer can stand apart from these ancient concepts; the borders around it will gradually melt away.

Science, like a culture, is a collective knowledge. Wide and open availability of the subject is crucial for the future advancement and its survival. Ancient cultures even weaved the scientific concepts with the way of everyday life. Incorporation of the Science into the everyday life increases the chances for its long time survival. Open availability encourages many people to involve in the scientific process. Wider awareness of the nature in the society is the only way for unifying the long departed Science and cultures.

### References and Notes

1. Karunakar Marasakatla, Tectonic Pause: Towards the Unification of Earth Sciences, published online at http://www.geocities.com/karunakarm/unifiedtheory.html on 11th March, 2001.
2. Karunakar Marasakatla, Cause, Origin and Continuation of Plate Tectonics, published online at http://www.geocities.com/karunakarm/causeofpt.html on 18th August, 2002.
3. Manusmrithi (1:64-80).
4. Surya Sidhantha (1:11-23).
5. Louis Ginzberg and Henrietta Szold (Translator), The Legends of the Jews: Bible Times and Characters from the Creation to Jacob Vol. 1.
6. Eloise Hart, Invisible Worlds, Sunrise Magazine, April/May 1984. [Available online at http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/hierarch/hi-elo.htm]
7. Eloise Hart, The Story of Beginnings, Sunrise Magazine, January 1977. [Available online at http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/world/mideast/relzoro2.htm]

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Categories: Physics

# Physics is a Bunch of Fairy Tales

Karunakar Marasakatla
(Updated: October 6th, 2010)
(
www.kmarasakatla.com)

Abstract: Answers to ten simple questions reveals that the standard theory of physics defies logic or reason similar to the fairy tales.

Fairy tales are full of unimaginable things far from reality. These stories defy logic, reason or any such tools or methods utilized in devising the theories in science. We assume that the principles of physics were devised on the basis of logic and reasoning; therefore strongly believe that they are the closest representation of the physical phenomena in the universe. How much of the reason and logic were actually utilized in devising the present theories in physics? Let’s look at ten basic questions and explore the answers provided in the present theories of physics. Further analyze these answers to see how much of logic was part of those theories and how close those principles are to reality.

Q01: Will the mass of a neutron star be the same as the mass of an object from which it collapsed?

Ans: The mass of a cloud is the combined mass of all the individual atoms inside the cloud. The mass of a neutron star is the combined mass of all the neutrons. According to the standard procedure for the measurement of mass, a cloud of gas measures less mass than the mass of the neutron star formed from the same amount of material inside the cloud [1]. According to the definition of mass, the size of the object is irrelevant to the amount of mass it measures. Here the cloud and its compact form differ in the amount of mass they measure. The definition of mass and the way we measure it has no correlation at all between each other. At one time, it is called as the resistance of an object and measured using the balance scale and other times it was termed as the amount of matter and still measured using the balance scale. Amount of matter, as in neutron star, can’t be measured using the balance scale. Mass is one of the fundamental concepts in physics but it lacks clarity in its definition. It is the biggest mistake in science which will eventually make most of present theories in physics meaningless. An object’s mass or gravity increases as it decreases in size and the mass will decrease as it expands [1, 2].

Q02: What actually happens when heavy atom was split into two lighter atoms in fission?

Ans: Fission is splitting the atom of a heavy element into the atoms of lighter elements. The underlying process expands the uranium nucleus; as a result a certain amount of energy will be released. Expansion of the matter releases the energy and the resultant products measure less mass. Compressed material contains more energy and measures more gravity. We observe the effect of mass deficit only when an object expands in size [1, 2].

Q03: Can we ever achieve the cold fusion?

Ans: Hydrogen in gaseous form occupies more space. It will never release energy whatever we do with that element in that form.  Only a compressed form of material contains energy and that energy will be released when the object expands. Plasma is a compact form of a group of protons. Plasma expands as it forms as part of a nucleus within an atom of an element. Expansion of the plasma releases the energy. Current theories assume that the plasma and the hydrogen gas are same because same amount of hydrogen gas collapsed to form the plasma. Only the size of the object changed but the amount of matter is same. In reality, these two objects are different, compact plasma contains more energy than the hydrogen gas. Attempts at gaining enormous amount of energy from cold fusion experiments by simply using the hydrogen gas will remain futile for ever [2].

Q04: Is gravity simply a curvature of space-time?

Ans: It requires energy to push a spherical object to a distance. After the initial push, the object travels to a distance and stops. It requires same amount of energy to push the object back to its original location. In the same way, if we throw a rock into the sky, it gets to a certain height and stops. The rock wouldn’t stay there forever. As soon as it reaches the highest point with the applied force, it starts to fall back as if somebody pushed it back to its original location. As the object on the surface of the earth requires energy to travel back to its original location; an object threw into the sky also requires energy to fall back. It comes from the energy within the earth. Gravity is energy [2] and it is being expensed whenever earth pulls an object. False theories made it to believe as a simple curvature of space-time.

Q05: What is the gravity at the center of the earth?

Ans: Shell theorem teaches us that the gravity at the center of the earth is zero. A small object pulled from all sides with tremendous amount of force will split apart in seconds. An object kept at the center of the earth will be subjected to tremendous pull from all sides. It eventually breaks apart after certain time. Gravity at the center of the earth is enormous, the only thing different is that it pulls apart an object instead of causing a displacement [2]. It requires energy to break an object therefore the gravity exerting earth is certainly a source of energy.

Q06: Is gravity hill really an optical illusion?

Ans: We find the strength of gravity stronger than that of the entire earth at some gravity hill locations on the earth. Strong presence of gravity at these locations can’t be explained using the present theories of gravity. So, an easy way out was devised and termed the local effect as the optical illusion. If it is that simple, then we don’t have to travel to only some locations. It will be easy if we build one for every town as an attraction. A local strong gravity generates from massive amount of compact material under the ground [2].

Q07: Where the energy comes from in a reaction between carbon atom and oxygen molecule to form the CO2?

Ans: Energy is required to shed an electron from a neutral atom. This is called the first ionization energy of that element. It requires even more energy to dislodge the next electron from the positive ion. Similarly, when we add an electron to an atom, it releases energy. We can add the electron to positive or negative ion or to a neutral atom. In combustion of a material, either the electrons are shared with or transferred to oxygen atoms. When an oxygen atom receives additional electrons, it releases the energy. The other atom actually consumes energy to release the electrons. So, whatever it may be the material that is reacting with the oxygen, only the oxygen atom releases the energy. Oxygen is the real fuel which generates the energy, not the hydrocarbon compounds which were assumed to be fuel all along. We can generate as much amount of energy by burning the hydrocarbons as the amount of available oxygen on the planet. Hydrocarbons simply enable the extraction of energy from the oxygen atom. Expansion in the nucleus of the oxygen atom releases the energy in the reaction. A negative ion measures less gravity than the neutral atom. Removal of an electron makes the nucleus to shrink in size and measures more gravity [2].

Q08: Is dark matter really out there?

Ans: Because of the flawed definition of mass, strength of gravity was misunderstood. Inverse square law of gravity is flawed to the core. We can’t equate the gravity of an object to the light emanating from a point size object. Point size sun will exert more gravity on the earth than the present volume of the star. Moon revolves around the earth and the earth revolves around the sun due to the gravity. Sun revolves around the galactic center due to the same reason, gravity. There is enough matter at the galactic center to keep the solar system in orbit [2]. The same galactic revolutions of the solar system causes the supercontinent cycle on the surface of the earth. Adam, Noah, Global deluge, Ark, Seven Earths, Seven Karshvars, Manu and the Manvantara cycles are the representation of the history of the earth between the supercontinent cycles [3, 4,5]. Physics not only got the basic principles wrong but also failed at understanding the writings in the ancient texts.

Q09: Does the perpetual motion exist?

Ans: A satellite in the orbit is a perfect example for the perpetual motion. As it requires energy to keep an object around another object in a circular path, the energy within the earth is consumed in keeping the Moon and hundreds of satellites revolving around the earth [2]. According to the new theory, gravity of the earth is decreasing in keeping the moon and the satellites in orbit.

Q10: Does a singularity or black hole exist in the universe?

Ans: An object’s gravity increases many fold when it collapses to a point size. Extreme gravity of the object devours everything in its vicinity; eventually exerting even more gravity in its surroundings [2]. The possibility of a continuously existing stationary singularity is very rare. Extreme self gravity makes the singularity to disintegrate as soon as it forms. The disintegration or expansion of singularity releases the energy. Amount of energy depends upon how much of the matter collapsed initially to form the singularity.

One day, we might be able to see the fairy tale creatures roaming around the earth but we will never find the dark matter as proposed in present theories. The need for the dark matter arose because of the flawed fundamental concepts. All the above questions and many more anomalies in physics can easily be explained by simply discarding the present definition of mass. Fairy tales are at least fun to read but the theories in physics are far beyond even the realm of entertainment. Nothing in these theories makes any sense. All the observed facts point in one direction and the present theories describe them in another direction. It will be interesting to see how long the present definition will prevail in the future.

References

1.       Marasakatla K, What Causes The Mass To Be Deficit Inside A Nucleus?, 2010. [Available online at http://vixra.org/abs/1008.0008  , Google knol and on my website]

2.       Marasakatla K, Gravity from a New Angle, 2009.

3.       Marasakatla K, Tectonic Pause: Towards the Unification of Earth Sciences, 2001. [This article initially posted at on March 11, 2001. Later made available at http://kmarasakatla.org/earth/unifiedtheory.html , http://vixra.org/abs/1008.0083 and Google knol ]

4.        Marasakatla K, Cause, Origin and Continuation of Plate Tectonics, 2002. [This article initially posted at on August 18th, 2002. Later made available at http://kmarasakatla.org/earth/causeofpt.html , http://vixra.org/abs/1008.0084 and Google knol ]

5.       Marasakatla K, Earth History from the Ancient Texts and It’s Relevance to Science, 2002. [This article initially posted at on August 18th, 2002. Later made available at http://kmarasakatla.org/earth/ancienttexts.html , http://vixra.org/abs/1008.0085 and Google knol ]